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Di^HENRY COWARD 

THE PIONEER CHORUS-MASTER 




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Dr. henry coward 



DR- HENRY 
COWARD 

THE PIONEER CHORUS-MASTER 



BY 

J. A. RODGERS 



LONDON : JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD 
NEW YORK : JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMXl 



THE BALLANTYNE PRESS LONDON, W.C. 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. PAGE 

I. THE MAN I 

II. LIFE STORY 5 

III, COMPOSITIONS 47 

IV. DR. COWARD AND CHORAL TECHNIQUE 49 

V. "THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR 84 
LIST OF CHORAL WORKS 97 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

DR. HENRY COWARD Frcntis/>iece 

To/ace 
page 

HENRY COWARD, FATHER OF DR. HENRY COWARD 6 

f Copied from a pltotograph on glass, taken, in 185b, in 
Liverpool) 

DR. HENRY COWARD AT THE AGE OF 21 I4 

DR. COWARD CONDUCTING 6o,000 CHILDREN AND 
TEACHERS IN NORFOLK PARK, SHEFFIELD, IN THE 
PRESENCE OF QUEEN VICTORIA, ON MAY 21, 1897 18 

TROPHIES FROM A TOUR IN GERMANY. DR. COWARD 

AND HIS WREATHS 42 

DR. COWARD SKIPPING ON THE S.S. "GRAMPIAN " EN 

ROUTE FOR CANADA, igo8 48 

DR. COWARD DIRECTING A REHEARSAL ON THE DECK 
OF THE S.S. "GRAMPIAN," EN ROUTE FOR CANADA, 

igo8 58 

A LADIES' SECTIONAL REHEARSAL FOR THE ROUND 
THE WORLD CHORAL TOUR, IQH, IN DR. 
coward's DRAWING-ROOM 84 



CHAPTER I 

THE MAN 

If the reader will study, for a few minutes, the 
portrait facing the title-page of this volume, he 
will find there an index to the character of the 
man whose life-story and achievements form 
the theme of the subsequent pages. The 
features betoken the strong man owning a 
purposeful and inflexible will ; they are ascetic, 
indicating a temperate life ; they bear the 
habitual frown of one who has studied long 
and deeply. In repose, the face is stamped 
with the trace of many years of toil, of hard- 
ships and material privations endured in the 
pursuit of a fixed ambition. But if the face be 
stern, like the front of some dark-browed cliff, 
they who know the man, can speak of softer 
aspects of his character — genial as sun-kissed 
vineyards — warmed by the glow from a 
generous and friendly heart, fresh with the 



2 DR. HENRY COWARD 

sincerity of a simple nature and enlivened by 
a kindly humour. 

Cheeriness and energy are the two chief 
externals which strike a casual acquaintance, 
meeting Dr. Henry Coward for the first time. 
His laugh is free and loud, his step has the 
spring of youth, his figure is trim and erect. 
His voice, though hardened by the wear and 
tear of rehearsals, has lost none of its ring and 
authority. He is swift in movement, hearty in 
manner ; he grips the hand and meets the eye 
with the zest that marks his every action. It is 
exhilarating to meet him and note the freshness 
of his personality. " He is great who is what 
he is from Nature and never reminds us of 
others," wrote Emerson. Dr. Coward fulfils 
that attribute of greatness for he is emphatically 
original, in mind as well as in manner. A 
keen lover of Nature, a follower of art — he has 
a room full of presentation pictures, by his own 
choice — a staunch friend and a tireless worker. 
Dr. Coward has made a success of his life, first 
by an implicit belief in himself, and next by 
dogged, unswerving purpose backed by an in- 
finite capacity for work. 

This is the man who has led the choral revival 



THE MAN 3 

which England has seen during the past fifteen 
years. Sir Henry J. Wood, speaking recently 
on the occasion of a presentation to Dr. Coward 
from the Sheffield Festival Association, said : 
" I should like to say what a deep debt of 
gratitude all us conductors and trainers and 
the whole musical world owe to Dr. Coward 
for the inspiration of his splendid enthusiasm, 
hard work and talent, displayed in the manage- 
ment and control of expression and diction as 
applied to large choral bodies." Such a tribute, 
coming from so eminent a conductor and 
choir-trainer, indicates, succinctly, the attitude 
of musical England towards Dr. Coward and 
his work. 

On all hands is heard the same testimony to 
the labours of this gifted man. His fame is 
known everywhere in Great Britain, Germany 
and Canada, where chorus-singing is practised. 
The musical life of a generation has felt the 
influence of his work. 

The story of his career, his early struggles, his 
subsequent triumphs, tells of difficulties con- 
quered to which a man of weaker fibre would 
have succumbed. Such a record as that of 
Dr. Coward should be a stimulus to many a 



4 DR. HENRY COWARD 

struggling youth, feeling the impulse of achieve- 
ment stirring within him, yet being " fast bound 
in misery and iron." Coward won through by 
sheer grit, fixity of purpose and a phenomenal 
application of systematic industry. These are 
the qualities which have brought him to the 
proud position he holds in the musical world 
to-day, these, and a whole-hearted application 
of the axiom, " Nothing great was ever 
achieved without enthusiasm." 



CHAPTER II 

LIFE STORY 

Henry Coward was born in Liverpool on 
November 26, 1849. His father was a Sheffield 
working man — a grinder — with a bent towards 
music, for as soon as his apprenticeship with 
Thomas Turner and Co., cutlers, of Sheffield, 
was ended he yielded to his stronger inclina- 
tion and became a professional banjoist and 
" nigger " minstrel. Mrs. Coward was a good 
singer, and toured and wandered with her 
husband for several years. They then took 
over the Shakespeare Hotel, Williamson Square, 
Liverpool, where, in due time, young Henry 
was born. Here the boy was nurtured in an 
atmosphere of music, of sorts. There was a 
"singing-room" attached to the hotel, and on 
special nights, the elder Coward, a clever 
executant on the banjo, was wont to perform. 
Blamphin the harpist, a celebrity in his day, 
5 



6 DR. HENRY COWARD 

was a frequenter of the place and often played 
there. The adjacent theatre, the Star Music 
Hall and a dancing saloon furnished the re- 
ceptive child with some curious early impres- 
sions, chiefly rhythmical. He speaks now of 
the exhilarating effect on his mind of the lilt of 
Lanner's and Strauss's waltzes to which he 
would listen, in all weathers, beneath the 
windows of those wonderful " palaces of 
pleasure." Like most children, he adored a 
band. One day he marched six miles, to keep 
within earshot of a regimental band doing 
route march. Then and there he determined 
to enlist, so that all day he might listen to the 
band playing ! These trivial matters all go to 
show how the wax of this small boy's mind was 
receiving impressions to the influence of his 
later career. His environment was, however, 
abruptly changed on the death of his father. 
His mother removed to Sheffield when Henry 
was but eight years old. The child had not 
had six months' consecutive schooling when 
hard necessity drove him to help in the bread- 
winning for the family. At a time when, now- 
adays, most children are occupied with toys, 
games and elementary school tasks, this boy 




III.NKV I I lUAI.Ii. I AlillK Ml- 1)1;. IU■:\K^" liiu AKIl 



LIFE STORY 7 

was working to live. Indentures of apprentice- 
ship with his uncle, a cutler in the employ of 
George Wostenholme and Sons, were signed. 
For twelve years he worked at the staple trade 
of Sheffield — twelve eventful years, as it proved, 
for in that time the seeds of musical ambition 
were sown, the awakening of his latent musical 
instinct was brought about, and that crowning 
asset of the self-made man, an implicit self- 
reliance, was evolved out of the hard schools of 
toil and poverty. Insensibly, his character was 
being "hardened" and "tempered" — to use a 
cutler's technicality. Young Coward learnt to 
think, and act for, and believe in himself. 

He made up his mind to "get on" and 
determined that no obstacle should daunt him. 
His spelling was deficient. He taught himself 
by reading the placards and advertisements in 
the streets on his way to work. Walking was 
a waste of time unless he had a book to read 
or a score to pore over on the way. He thought 
shorthand might be useful to him ; he acquired 
it by a laborious method. One day he stopped 
outside a large hoarding in a central street of 
the town. He learnt that the Duke of Norfolk 
was laying the foundation-stone of the new 



8 DR. HENRY COWARD 

Albert Hall. Coward climbed to investigate. 
A friend called out " Hey up, 'Arry, come down, 
there's a bobby." Coward came down — but 
on the inside, and saw the ceremony through. 
Thus he witnessed the genesis of the building 
where thirty years later he was to win his chief 
successes. 

A chance remark of a fellow workman set 
the youth thinking. Sheffield workshops are 
unlovely places, grimy, dull, forbidding. The 
workers, to brighten them, pin coloured pictures 
on the walls. One of these, in boy Coward's 
"shop," showed a castle, as dismantled by 
Cromwell. " How was it that Cromwell could 
do all this ?" he asked an old workman. 

" He used 'is 'ead," the man replied ; " it's 
them as uses their 'eads as gets on in the 
world." Coward pondered the words in his 
heart — " He used his head ; why should I not 
use my head ? " he meditated. 

He used his head, literally. He took up 
the study of phrenology, mastering Fowler's 
"Handbook of Phrenology." His comrades 
"chaffed" him and named him "Bumpy." 
A few submitted to his examinations and were 
duly impressed by his sensational predictions. 



LIFE STORY 9 

The phase soon passed ; music was about to 
call to him, and the summons was not to be 
denied. 

It was during these twelve years of boyhood 
and early manhood that he laid the foundation 
of that sturdy health which keeps him, in his 
sixty-second year, a young man still, spirited 
and energetic, youthful in body and mind. 
Early morning swims in Endcliflfe Dam — now 
a park bathing-pool — were fine tonics for his 
day's labour at the bench. He was nearly 
drowned once ; a chance grab at his hair saved 
the future famous chorus-master for the fulfil- 
ling of his destiny. To these early habits of 
clean living and solicitude for the welfare of 
his physique Dr, Coward ascribes his present- 
day vigour. He boasts he has never had a 
headache in his life. At forty he took his first 
holiday ! 

During this formative period, the first stages 
of Coward's musical career were entered. A 
lodger at his home was a professional flautist 
and harp-player. He taught the boy the flute. 
His Sunday school teacher, Mr. John Peace, 
saw his musical aptitude and gave him violin 
lessons. He practised early and late, his studio 



lo DR. HENRY COWARD 

being the garret. A considerable portion of 
his pocket money went in the purchase of 
candles. As time went on, he found the diffi- 
culties of practical musicianship were so great 
that he determined to be a theorist. He never 
learnt the pianoforte or organ, a remarkable 
and probably unique fact in the case of a 
musician holding the degrees of Mus. Bac. and 
Mus. Doc. of Oxford University. His mind, 
then, being fixed upon a course of action, he 
sought a way for carrying it out. He heard of 
the announced formation of a Tonic Sol-fa 
class. To his bench-mate, Ben Burgon, he 
said " Come on, we'll join." This they did, and 
progressed so rapidly that the two youths were 
speedily selected as models for the rest of the 
class. (In later years, both became members 
of the Tonic Sol-fa Council, Coward being a 
Fellow of the College, and Burgon holding the 
Advanced Certificate.) 

The class broke up. Tonic Sol-fa had but 
few adherents in those days. But Coward 
saw the utility of the letter-notation and 
was shrewd enough to foresee that here might 
be scope for the exercise of the gift for 
teaching that he felt he possessed. So he 



LIFE STORY ii 

joined another and more enterprising class, 
conducted by Mr. Samuel Hadfield, a name 
respected in Sheffield as that of a pioneer 
and devoted musical worker. The class was 
held at St. Stephen's School under the 
direction of the Rev. John Burbidge (later 
Canon of Liverpool), whose son, Mr. Noel 
W. Burbidge, is now one of the honorary 
secretaries of the Sheffield Musical Festival. 
Young Coward had a good alto voice and as 
he was a facile and sure reader from the Sol-fa 
notation, he soon was the mainstay of the alto 
section. During all these pursuits the youth 
was following music in other branches. In- 
numerable sixpences went into the pay-box of 
the local theatres when opera companies visited 
the town. He sang in his chapel choir and 
puzzled out harmony problems by analysis and 
intuition. One day his employer, Mr. George 
Wostenholme, met him and asked, " Well, my 
boy, what is your pleasure ? " Swift came the 
reply, "Music's my pleasure, sir." ''Music; 
you may as well go to the devil as learn music." 
Coward decided to risk it — and persevered. 

He was now so proficient in Tonic Sol-fa 
that he was fired with evangelising zeal. He 



12 DR. HENRY COWARD 

had taken various certificates. A life-long 
friend and former pupil relates : 

" The youth started teaching in the dungeon- 
like room underneath Queen Street Chapel. 
His method of teaching was of the lightning 
order, and there was always a considerable 
stock of dynamite on hand. The amount of 
modulator work we did was awful, and would 
have killed any one less enthusiastic than 
teacher and scholars were. The way we 
schah-lahed up and down that modulator, 
worked at time exercises, listened to mental 
effects, got pulled up in the middle of an 
exercise, and were da-capo-ed back to the start 
are memories that haunt one still. There was 
no mistake about the thoroughness of this 
drill. In a winter or two it told, and we were 
ambitious enough to give a concert. Locke's 
music to ' Macbeth ' and Root's ' Pilgrim 
Fathers,' with certain selected songs, was the 
limit of our ambition. Looking back, I am 
amazed at the sublime cheek we had in those 
days. Most of us were 'prentice lads — Coward 
certainly was — and here we proposed running 
a concert, and to be its guarantors. Picture it, 
think of it ! Our conductor was eighteen years 



LIFE STORY 13 

old, and the others, some were over, some 
under that age. The concert came off. We 
had a lovely prima-donna in pea-green silk, 
and a kindly contralto gave us her services." 

Another concert was attempted by the ad- 
venturous band. They essayed Romberg's "Lay 
of the Bell." Their ambition o'erleapt itself 
and the fall cost them £2^, which Coward 
scrupulously paid off when his apprenticeship 
was ended. 

At twenty-two Coward weighed seriously his 
attainments and position. He felt that if the 
cry of his inner nature was to be satisfied he 
must substitute mental for physical work and 
live by his brains. His incessant reading, 
reinforced by trained habits of observation 
and assimilation of all that came to eye and ear, 
had given him a supply of that practical edu- 
cation which, by his lack of schooling, he had 
missed in boyhood. It was no light thing for 
him thus to sacrifice the substance for the 
shadow. He was one of the best working 
cutlers in Sheffield. Thanks largely to the 
training he had received in the workshop of 
Mr. W. H. Wragg, he had become so expert 
that his work won many prizes and was sent 



14 DR. HENRY COWARD 

out to exhibitions as samples of high-class 
handicraft. For the last knives he made he 
received the high price of £2> P^^ dozen. He 
was never out of work one day, even in times 
of trade depression. But Coward wanted to 
be a teacher. An advertisement for a pupil 
teacher at Zion School, Attercliffe, Sheffield 
(salary _^2o per year), turned the scale, and to 
change the metaphor, he took the plunge. 
He made a rapid calculation, in chalk, on his 
work bench and reckoned it was worth his 
while to endure a present loss for future gain. 

He got the post and gave away his tools the 
next day, but, with true Yorkshire caution, on 
condition that he might have them if needed, 
within six months. 

A period of almost incredible toil now 
began. When he left the workman's bench to 
serve for three years as a pupil teacher he could 
not decline a noun, or work a " sum " beyond 
long division. It may be realised, therefore, 
how much leeway there was to be made good. 
He set aside five hours a day for sleep, rising at 
five A.M. in summer and six in winter, to study 
before leaving for school. He won a science 
scholarship at South Kensington of which he 



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LIFE STORY 15 

did not avail himself. Other local certificates 
(Cambridge) were also taken, all being done in 
minimum time. He read voraciously. Only 
an abnormal brain and body could have stood 
the strain. He had been told, when a boy, 
that the equipoise of his mentality and his 
physical powers was so nicely balanced that he 
could never overwork himself ; he might toil 
with his hands and mind to an unlimited 
extent. These early years of scholastic life 
proved the truth of the statements. 

The Zion School was somewhat easy-going. 
The registers were marked once a week ! 
Before a year was out the quondam pupil 
teacher was virtually headmaster. The in- 
spector was impressed with the young assis- 
tant's powers and offered to recommend him 
to a better post. As he could not live on ;^20 
a year and the authorities refused him the 
increase of ;^io for which he applied, he ob- 
tained the headmastership of Tinsley National 
School at ;^8o a year, within twelve months of 
his leaving the workshop. This was quick 
work. But Coward's hustling methods were 
not completed. In four months he was in- 
stalled at the Greasborough Congregational 



i6 DR. HENRY COWARD 

School, at ;^i2o a year, on condition that he 
took a teacher's certificate at the forthcoming 
examinations. This was done. Coward had 
accomplished the remarkable task of winning 
in twenty months a scholastic qualification 
which ordinarily occupied six or seven years. 

The rest of his teaching career may now be 
rapidly dealt with. After three and a half years 
at Greasborough, he was appointed head of the 
Park Board School. By the irony of fate, he 
superseded his old chief of the Zion School. 
Four more years and a plum fell to his lot. 
This was the headship of the Free Writing 
School. There were but sixty scholars, no 
inspection, and a salary of ;^250 a year. The 
post was virtually a sinecure. No wonder that 
the Charity Commissioners, later on, deemed 
the school to be unnecessary. It was closed, its 
endowment being merged into that of the 
Grammar School, and the master, after ten 
years' enjoyment of its pleasant lines, receiving 
a solatium of ;^ioo. The loss of this post was 
a serious matter for Coward, now in his fortieth 
year. With characteristic daring, he decided 
to enter the musical profession. 

We must now return to Coward's " twenties " 



LIFE STORY 17 

to pick up the threads of his musical pursuits. 
We shall, by that, be enabled to see how he 
fixed the foundation for that superstructure of 
fame which, in his middle age, has brought to 
him great honour and profit, and has so bene- 
ficially influenced his generation. 

During his scholastic life. Coward worked 
unceasingly to spread the tenets of Tonic Sol-fa 
far and wide. He conducted classes at the 
Church Institute and Mechanics' Institute, 
Sheffield. Five nights in each week were devoted 
to this pioneer work. He was appointed con- 
ductor of the Sheffield Band of Hope Festivals, 
directing their annual demonstration of 3000 
children at the Botanical Gardens : he also 
conducted the Whit Monday gatherings in 
Norfolk Park, controlling, on each occasion, 
from 10,000 to 20,000 singers. It may here be 
told that his experience in conducting huge 
masses of singers led to his being invited to 
direct the memorable gathering of children in 
Norfolk Park, on the occasion of the visit of 
Queen Victoria to Sheffield in her Diamond 
Jubilee year, 1897. The singing force numbered 
nearly 60,000 scholars and teachers ; there were 
nine bands, distributed at various points over 

B 



i8 DR. HENRY COWARD 

the vast parterre of gaily clad children. By 
this device, the army of musicians, nearly a 
quarter of a mile in length, was controlled 
with surprising precision. The Conductor 
was presented to her Majesty, who was 
deeply impressed by the wondrously beautiful 
effect of so many thousands of sweet young 
voices. 

In 1876 Coward and a few enthusiasts formed 
a choral body, the Sheffield Tonic Sol-fa 
Association, mainly with a view to doing pro- 
paganda work. How this small beginning — 
they once gave a concert with but ten tenors 
— developed into the splendid organisation now 
known as the Sheffield Musical Union, and 
often named " The Sheffield Choir," is told in 
a later chapter. Two years later he was ap- 
pointed conductor of the Sheffield Amateur 
Instrumental Society. This body, at one time 
the only permanent full orchestra in the town, 
did good service in training young instru- 
mentalists and performing good-class music at 
a time when Sheffield was, in orchestral 
matters, benighted. The conductor, on his 
part, derived benefit from the position, for he 
took up the study of orchestration which he 



LIFE STORY 19 

turned to account when, later, he undertook 
the composition of cantatas and oratorios. 

Events and his activities were gradually 
leading to the important third period of Dr. 
Coward's life. He had gradually equipped 
himself with the stock-in-trade of a professional 
musician. He had made a study of singing, 
scientific and artistic ; his conducting and 
class-teaching formed a far-reaching connection 
and already he had begun to compose. This 
last attainment was exemplified in a cantata, 
" Magna Charta," and a number of songs, 
anthems, school-songs, glees, &c. 

When, therefore, in 1887 the blow fell and 
he was deprived of his school post (as has 
been told), he determined to wring a living out 
of music. Being a non-executant, he saw that 
if he were to attain recognition he must have 
the guinea-stamp of a degree. He decided to 
go for " the best," the Oxford degrees of 
Bachelor and Doctor. Still unaided, studying 
harmony and counterpoint from text-book and 
by analysis, he slaved day and night. He had 
first to matriculate, and at that time the literary 
test required a pass in four subjects. He 
passed, and in eighteen months he had taken 



20 DR. HENRY COWARD 

his degree, the examiners being Sir Frederick 
Gore Ouseley, Sir John Stainer and Sir Hubert 
Parry. His exercise was a cantata, "The 
Story of Bethany." Five years later he ob- 
tained the degree of Doctor of Music with the 
oratorio exercise "The King's Error" produced 
the same year (1894) at the Tonic Sol-fa 
Festival, Crystal Palace. 

By this time, 1894, through his many activi- 
ties. Dr. Coward had become a personality in 
the City. To mark public appreciation of his 
educative work a town's subscription was 
organised and as a result the mayor presented 
him with the robes of an Oxford Doctor in 
Music. 

We have now reached that period in Dr. 
Coward's career when the converging lines of 
his ambitions and dreams were closing into the 
centre of his fixed purpose — to become a great 
choral conductor. To relate how this came 
about we must be retrospective. The Tonic 
Sol-fa Association, already spoken of, had 
developed from its modest beginnings as a 
tuitional " class," into an important choral 
society. In its early days, the character of 
much of the vocal material was undeniably 



LIFE STORY 2i 

poor. The new notation enabled all and 
sundry to read music at sight, and so a large 
number, lacking vocal endowment, entered 
its ranks. To this fact their conductor was 
rudely awakened one day. He pressed an out- 
spoken musical friend to attend a rehearsal. 
The invited amateur critic went, and the choir 
were put through their paces. The theoretical 
side of it all was unimpeachable ; the reading 
without flaw, the time, faultless. Eagerly 
the conductor awaited the verdict. " It is all 
very clever," said the critic, "but you can't 
sing." The conductor was aghast. It was 
mechanically perfect but the music was lacking. 
Expression, colour, interpretation, real musi- 
cianship were the missing qualities. Dr. 
Coward, ever ready to learn, thought it over 
and, like a wise man, accepted and profited by 
a friendly criticism. He revised his methods, 
and those of the choir. He determined they 
should " sing," and they worked again for many 
months. Gradually, the vocal qualification was 
made more stringent ; the Tonic Sol-fa certifi- 
cate, formerly necessary, was abolished and 
singers who could pass the voice and theory 
test in either notation were admitted. Several 



22 DR. HENRY COWARD 

times the society (the name had been changed 
to the Sheffield Musical Union) entered for 
competitions. They won the second prize at 
contests at the Crystal Palace and the Royal 
Albert Hall (Inventions Exhibition). At the 
Eisteddfod, at Carnarvon, they were not 
" placed." 

Dr. Coward is fond of telling a story respect- 
ing the last-named competition. 

The test piece was " He that shall endure," 
from " Elijah." The choir sang really very 
well ; the popular impression was that they 
were far beyond their competitors. The judge, 
in his award, said their technical performance 
was the best, but that they had attempted to 
sing oratorio music "with expression." Dr. 
Coward had indulged in the process of "paint- 
ing the lily and gilding refined gold." " Well," 
said the conductor, " if that is the case, no 
more competitions for me. In future, I'll go 
my own way." The Society never competed 
again. Years after, Dr. Coward returned to 
the scene — as chief adjudicator. 



LIFE STORY 23 

The Sheffield Festivals 

Dr. Coward had thus, by the year 1895, 
reached the premier position in Sheffield as 
a choral trainer. About this time a few 
members of the St. Cecilia Choral Society 
(now disbanded) called a meeting to discuss 
the desirability of establishing a Musical Festival 
in Sheffield. The beginning of the affair was 
very modest, but to this initiative the founda- 
tion of the Festival is directly due. The 
scheme took the form of a trial performance 
of " Elijah," with a local orchestra and a 
chorus drawn from the various district and 
city musical societies. Dr. Coward conducted. 
The singing of the choir proved how superb 
and suitable for a festival was the available 
choral material. A representative meeting was 
summoned, with a view to organising a two 
days' festival for the following year, 1896, and 
an association for the promotion of musical 
festivals in Sheffield was formed. Sir (then 
Mr.) August Manns was appointed conductor 
and Dr. Coward chorus-master. The works 
selected were "Elijah," "The Golden Legend," 
"Job" (C. H. H. Parry) and "Faust "(Berlioz). 



24 DR. HENRY COWARD 

Dr. Coward realised that here was the oppor- 
tunity of his life. He seized it with both 
hands. Disraeli's dictum that "The secret of 
success is constancy to purpose," fixed itself in 
his mind. 

This man of dogged industry set himself to 
open a new chapter in the history of chorus- 
singing. He was helped by the musical con- 
ditions of Sheffield. The district is unusually 
rich in good voices, added to which there were 
many talented choir trainers and teachers who, 
in enthusiasm for the Festival, prepared and 
sent in the pick of their members and pupils. 
There is no need to dwell on the doings of that 
first Sheffield Festival. It was, chorally, a 
revelation. Only one London critic attended, 
the veteran Mr. Joseph Bennett. He wrote in 
the Daily Telegraph so glowing an appre- 
ciation of the wonderful chorus-singing at 
Sheffield that three years later, at the Festival 
of 1899, every important newspaper in the 
country was represented, as were several foreign 
journals, and the fame of Sheffield choralism 
became world-wide. 

While on the subject of the Sheffield 
Festivals, with which Dr. Coward was for 



LIFE STORY 25 

fourteen years so intimately associated and 
through the medium of which his fame was 
won, it will be convenient to complete the 
record of his work in that connection. 

From the first, he laid especial emphasis on 
the importance of sight-reading in the choral 
tests. " I would rather have," he said, " a good 
reader with a medium voice than a medium 
reader with a good voice. The one sings 
everything with confidence and we get one 
hundred per cent, of what he or she can do ; 
the other is uneven and often sings tentatively, 
especially in the difficult parts, where certainty 
is most essential." In this respect Dr. Coward 
differs from Sir Henry J. Wood, who puts the 
voice first, holding the view that, with fifty or 
sixty rehearsals, a medium reader, possessing a 
good quality and power of voice, provided the 
ear be good, can learn everything, while the 
musical effect of the better voice is greater. 
It may here be said that the latter opinion was 
endorsed by the Festival Chorus Committee 
who, in the more recent Sheffield Festivals, 
considerably altered the relative number of 
marks given under the heads of Voice and 
Sight-reading. 



26 



DR. HENRY COWARD 



The rules for the selection of the chorus 
were practically the same at all the Festivals 
(save in the matter of marks, just named). 
Every applicant was tested by a Committee 
of eight or nine local professional singing 
teachers, Dr. Coward being one, who were 
seated behind a screen, to secure absolute im- 
partiality. The tests were three in number — 
Voice (quality, compass and power), Sight- 
reading in Tune, Sight-reading in Time. The 
following examples will show the exacting 
character of the tests : 



Voice Test 



SOPRANO & TENOR. (Breath may be taken at ».) 
Largo ( J = 66) 




KeyD. II 4 :1 .1 It i :n .t I d' .f :n .de'lr'.d'.ta :-,lje,l 




W^ 



^^ 



^=f=^:^ 



LIFE STORY 



27 



bPij'Cr f^ 


-S =r— [• 1 


1 r ft> ^= 


-=r-J^ 


|se .f :in' .r' 

son, Ky - ri 


Id' .t ,1 :n' 

- e e - le 


-1 1 1 — 

1 - :rei In' 

i - son, 


et.. 


m=' j-j j- 


-=r-ih 


g»):l. 1* — ^— = 


-^ f— 


1 — > =1 




' ! — 1—1 — I— 


— • » 


_J ^ 4— 

1 ^ — 





I - .PI :n .f :f_:!!! •'_•£ T^ -^ •' •" '"* .d',t :d' .f 

in ter - ra pax ho - mi - ni - bus bo-nse vo-lun 



i 



-I ^ t i l -1 , " "— j-gj- 



p^^ 



^^s-i- 






IZte 


h* — F * y • aT".! 


^^■-^g^^^ 


ta 


:r 


— ^— •** 

T — "T^ 

Id *.d_.Pl 

tis, bo - 


-9 — 
:s 

nae 


d' .r',Pl':r',d'.t,l lt,r'.s'^':rn',r'.d',t| 

vo - - lun - ta 

^ J^ f* « 1 

-• — = e H m — =i * — s : 




■*^ 


—i 

* 

—4 




Lm •! 


— tj, 1 

-* rza 


^ g rJ- 










•" ' u 


_W 



28 



DR. HENRY COWARD 




[ l,d'.f'.W':r',d '.t,ll8,t.d'/:n'>f'.n'.r'| d'.t.l,d':t,1.8 ^elr'j ;-.fe | 



Ht=?^ 



* =^=:^i^ ^z= Ml 



:si=rz=3,z 



jSE^^SEEEi^ 



^3: 



-t' W:^^- 



|8 .t u' .8 II . t ,d' :r ' |- .d' :d' j' Ir' ./i':- | 

tis, ho - mi - ni - bus bo • - nae vo - lun - ta 




^- ^=*— C^ -T-*— T 



iitzi 



:p— zMrr^;^ 



2e*j-i 


* -P'V 


-•- 






|-«> 


n 


- tis 

It ^ 


— *• 

* .d' ir_.?;^ 

in - ter - 


ra 

■r- 


s' :-* 

pax. 


If :- 

A 


n':-|- 

men. 


-=-|| 












i#v-J-« 


■i^ »-^=i- 


g -. 




-g fc— 




- ■ [ 


f^i — » >- r 


-im — - — . 


_j» 


-t^ \ 


«J 1 


t 




i 


1 


.a. 


^:-«i — 1 


-a ^ , 


-)»-^i— 




~ — : — a— 


\~^ 11 










* J — 




^ 


— . 





LIFE STORY 29 

Sight Test (Tune) unaccompanied 



The tests may he sun^ from either notation to the sol/a syllables 
or to any vowel sound. 



Sight Test (Time) unaccompanied 

The Time Test will consist of 5 bars in common 
time and will include no difficulties beyond those in- 
cluded in the following specimen ; 




The sight tests were specially written by 
Dr. McNaught and sent in sealed envelopes, 
opened only in the examination room, so that 
the trial was perfectly bona fide. Election 
was by marks. Three hundred and fifty appli- 
cants obtaining the highest total marks were 
accepted ; the rest were declined, no favour 
being shown or exceptions considered. After 
every Festival the choir was disbanded. The 
chorus was entirely voluntary. An allowance 



30 DR. HENRY COWARD 

for expenses was made — 25s. to ladies, and 20s. 
to gentlemen. There were special regulations 
as to uniformity of dress and all members 
were expected to attend seventy-five per cent, 
of the rehearsals or lose their places in the 
choir. 

The singing of the choir at the 1899 Festival 
sent the name of Dr. Coward ringing through 
the country. An interview and biography in 
The Musical Times from the pen of the late 
Mr. F. G. Edwards served to familiarise the 
musical world with the personality of the 
now famous choir-trainer. He and the choir 
had received high eulogy from Sir Hubert 
Parry and Sir Edward Elgar, who had at the 
Festival conducted respectively " King Saul " 
and " King Olaf." A veteran critic remarked : 
" I have not returned to hear the second part 
of * The Messiah ' for fifteen years, but I went 
back yesterday to hear that choir, and stayed 
to the last bar." The Festival was completely 
successful. There was a handsome profit 
and the choir had leaped to a proud position 
alongside those of Birmingham and Leeds. 
The credit of this choral success was, with- 
out doubt, entirely due to the chorus-master. 



LIFE STORY 31 

Though Sir August Manns had directed a few 
practices previous to the final full rehearsals, 
he did nothing in the way of training, simply 
accepting Dr. Coward's work as it stood. 
When, therefore, Sir August Manns declined 
the invitation of the Committee to conduct the 
1902 Festival on the grounds of failing health, 
it was thought by many that Dr. Coward 
would obtain the reversion of the post. What 
his own personal views or expectations were 
it is impossible to say, but there is little doubt 
that it has been the great disappointment of 
his life that he has not had the honour of 
directing a Sheffield Festival. The Committee, 
while deeply appreciative of Dr. Coward's 
services and his phenomenal ability as a 
chorus-master, felt it to be desirable that a 
musician of world-wide reputation in the 
department of orchestral and choral con- 
ducting should be appointed, one whose name 
as chief would lend prestige to the Festival. 
Mr. Henry J. Wood, who obviously fulfilled all 
these requirements, was engaged, with Dr. 
Coward in his former position, 

Dr. Coward accepted the situation, and set 
to work in his own phrase to " achieve the 



32 DR. HENRY COWARD 

impossible." There were to be present at the 
forthcoming Festival several prominent com- 
posers, conducting their own works, among 
them Sir Edward EIgar(" Dream of Gerontius"), 
Dr. Cowen ("Ode to the Passions"), Mr. 
Coleridge-Taylor ("Meg Blane"), Sir Hubert 
Parry (" Blest Pair of Sirens "), and to these 
the chorus-master felt he was directly respon- 
sible. (In the case of the other works, Mr. 
Wood took some part in their preparation, 
attending a number of rehearsals in Sheffield 
for that purpose.) These compositions were 
subjected to a laborious and minute prepara- 
tion. In the case of "The Dream of Gerontius," 
there was an additional incentive to excel. 
The work had been produced at Birmingham 
Festival two years previously in a performance 
so indifferent on its choral side as seriously to 
retard the acceptance of the work in England. 
It is here opportune to correct a misappre- 
hension with regard to English appreciation 
of Elgar's master-work. It has often been 
stated, and the new edition of "Grove" en- 
dorses the error, that it was due to the per- 
formance of "The Dream of Gerontius" at 
the Niederrheinische Fest at Diisseldorf in 



LIFE STORY 33 

May 1902, and Herr Richard Strauss's warm 
compliments to the composer, that " the atten- 
tion of English managers was again turned to 
it" (Grove's Dictionary, vol. i. p. 729). In 
view of this statement, and others of a similar 
character, it is well to remember that more than 
four months before the German performance 
the oratorio was decided upon for the Sheffield 
Festival of 1902, while even prior to the Sheffield 
choice, it was selected for performance at 
the Worcester Festival, also held in 1902. The 
reproach that Elgar's great work was ignored 
by English musicians until Germany realised 
its beauty does not apply to the Committees of 
two English Festivals. 

Dr. Coward noted the failure of an historic 
festival choir to realise the opportunities and 
greatness of "The Dream of Gerontius." One 
of his amiable weaknesses, and one that has been 
a factor in his success, is the desire to excel. To 
borrow his own phrase, he likes " to go one 
better." Birmingham failed, Sheffield must 
succeed. Sheffield did succeed. The com- 
poser at last heard his conception realised 
He had attended a choral rehearsal prior to the 
Festival and was amazed at the finish and colour 



34 DR. HENRY COWARD 

of the singing. In connection with the singing 
of the Demons' chorus, which, under the 
trainer's teaching, had become a hard snarling, 
unmusical orgy of " despairing, cursing rage," 
the composer said to the chorus : " You are 
just right ; you cannot overdo that expression." 
The remark is often quoted in justification of 
Dr. Coward's interpretation of those vivid 
pages, when critics, as occasionally they do, 
charge Dr. Coward with exaggeration and the 
sacrifice of artistic proportion for the sake of 
point-making and obvious " effect." 

Sir Hubert Parry, ever an admirer of the 
Sheffield musician, Dr. Cowen, and Mr. Cole- 
ridge-Taylor expressed their delight at the 
singing of the chorus, and their testimony, 
carried afar, helped to spread the still growing 
fame of Sheffield's chorus and its master. 
During the afore-mentioned Festival perform- 
ances, Dr. Coward haunted the auditorium 
like a "perturbed spirit." His anxiety that all 
should go well, together with his temperamental 
restlessness and unbounded energy, made it 
impossible that he could retain his seat, like an 
ordinary member of the audience. He had 
told the chorus that he should keep his eye on 



LIFE STORY 35 

them, and it is said of the earlier Festivals that 
most of the singers looked at him, in the 
audience, more than at the conductor 1 Be 
that as it may, he provided himself with a 
camp-stool, and throughout the performances 
he could be seen tip-toeing about from stalls 
to saloon, from balcony to gallery, frowning, 
smiling, with nods and facial expression, 
following the text in lip-language and generally 
playing the part of an admonishing or approv- 
ing, watchful mentor. What, in any other man, 
might have been condemned as fussiness and a 
desire for publicity, was tolerated as being due, 
and no doubt rightly so, to his whole-hearted 
interest in the choir and a desire that they 
should do themselves and him full justice. 
These considerations banished all his self-con- 
sciousness ; he was never one to consider much 
what people thought of him or his eccentricities. 
Two other matters connected with the 1902 
Festival yet remain to be mentioned. One is 
that the Selection Committee, perhaps as some 
sort of a solatium to Dr. Coward for the with- 
holding from him of the conductorship of the 
Festival, invited him to compose a cantata 
as one of the commissioned novelties. He 



36 DR. HENRY COWARD 

accepted the offer and on October i, 1902, he 
had the distinction of conducting his cantata, 
"Gareth and Linet," at the Sheffield Festival 
with Madame Ella Russell, Miss Muriel Foster, 
Mr. Ben Davies and Mr. David Bispham in the 
solo parts. The music of the cantata is referred 
to in a subsequent chapter. 

The other circumstance was an invitation 
extended to the Sheffield Festival chorus, at the 
suggestion of Sir Edward Elgar, to sing in the 
" Coronation Ode," composed by him for the 
projected gala performance at Covent Garden 
Opera House, in connection with theCoronation 
of King Edward VII. 150 members of the choir 
were selected and Dr. Coward was entrusted 
with their training. The Coronation was to take 
place on Friday, June 27, the gala performance 
on the following Monday. As all the world 
knows, the King was stricken with illness, and 
on the previous Tuesday came the announce- 
ment of the postponement of the event. Apart 
Irom the anxiety and grief at the cause of this 
calamity, it was a bitter disappointment to the 
choir, who were thus robbed of a proud and 
historic distinction. The affair was not how- 
ever without its amusing sequel. A monthly 



LIFE STORY 37 

journal came out with an elaborate criticism 
of the gala concert, signed by "A Peer's 
Daughter." The singing of the Sheffield Festi- 
val chorus and among others, of Signor Caruso, 
was adversely criticised — "seldom have we 
heard a worse chorus" said the writer — the 
whole couched in language of a flowing and 
imaginative character, calculated, as Sir W. S. 
Gilbert says in " The Mikado," " to give vrai- 
semblance to an otherwise bald and uncon- 
vincing narrative." Alas, for the unfortunate 
lady critic, the performance never came off. 
Great was the amusement of the choir when 
the secretary read out to them an account of 
how badly they had sung at the postponed 
performance ! The article subsequently formed 
the basis of a libel action on the part of one of 
the parties concerned, and the enterprising 
editor had to pay ;^200 for his " previousness." 
Mr. Henry J. Wood was unable to accept 
the post of conductor of the 1905 Sheffield 
Festival. Again the name of Dr. Coward was 
mentioned, informally, but the committee, 
taking the same stand as before, offered the posi- 
tion to Mr. Felix Weingartner. Dr. Coward had 
already been associated with the famous Vienna 



38 DR. HENRY COWARD 

conductor. In April 1904, the Musical Union, 
Dr. Coward's Society, fulfilled an engagement 
to sing in " The Dream of Gerontius " and other 
works at a festival, organised by Professor Kruse 
at Queen's Hall, at which Mr. Weingartner con- 
ducted. That event served to forge between 
the two musicians a link of mutual regard and 
confidence which made the dual control of the 
1905 Festival smooth and successful. 

I had the pleasure of accompanying Dr. 
Coward, in the summer of 1905, on a visit to 
Mr. Weingartner at Bad-Kreuth, in Bavaria, 
and there was made aware of the full confidence 
which the conductor placed in the judgment 
and resourcefulness of his chorus-master. Mr. 
Weingartner was anxious that Dr. Coward 
should conduct some of the shorter works, 
offering readily to surrender the baton in those 
cases to his subordinate. The suggestion, how- 
ever, was never, acted upon, for the committee 
had already definitely arranged that at the 
Sheffield Festivals there should be no con- 
ducting guests or deputies. They were paying 
very handsomely for the services of their 
distinguished conductor ; his presence was a 
valuable asset at each concert and they (I think 



LIFE STORY 39 

wisely) resolved that the responsibility should 
be vested in the one chief, and in him alone. 

Mr. Weingartner acted on the same principle 
with regard to the chorus as did Sir August 
Manns, that is to say, he took over the work of 
Dr. Coward, making but few, and those only 
trifling, alterations. He never saw the chorus 
until a fortnight before the Festival, when half 
a dozen consecutive choral rehearsals were 
held in Sheffield. The delight of the eminent 
composer-conductor was boundless. He 
smiled, patted the trainer on the back and at 
one point, after a brilliant performance of the 
students' and soldiers' chorus in Berlioz's 
" Faust," to the infinite amusement of the 
chorus, he seized the beaming chorus-master 
and gave him a resounding kiss. 

The Sheffield Festival Chorus and their 
chorus-master had the honour of performing 
before King Edward VII. and Queen Alexandra 
at the opening of Sheffield University in June 
1905. They sang the National Anthem, 
" Daughter of Ancient Kings," from Elgar's 
" Coronation Ode," and " O Gladsome Light," 
from Sullivan's "The Golden Legend." In 
connection with the last-named piece a curious 



40 DR. HENRY COWARD 

contretemps occurred. There was no orchestra 
or military band in the Great Quadrangle 
where the Royal party, some thousands of 
guests and the chorus were assembled, the 
nearest musical instruments being the Royal 
Trumpeters in the street outside. Under these 
circumstances Dr. Coward undertook to sing 
the key-chord for the choir. But, in the buzz 
and rustle of the upstanding crowd, the tonality 
was not obtained by the singers. The con- 
ductor raised his baton and signed for a start. 
There was a momentary consternation and then 
some brave spirits, making a wild guess — not 
possessing the endowment of absolute pitch — 
started, but in A flat indeed of F ! There was 
no help for it, they must go through with the 
performance ; it would never do to have a 
breakdown. They pluckily sang on, in a 
foreign key, three semitones too high, the 
sopranos pealing out their repeated high B 
fiats with the bravery of true heroines. Despite 
this hitch, the singing of the chorus was much 
admired and Dr. Coward received, on behalf of 
his force, many cordial compliments. 

For the Festival of 1908 Mr. Henry J. Wood 
was reappointed, with Dr. Coward still in his 



LIFE STORY 41 

old position. By this time, as will shortly be 
told, Dr. Coward's numerous training and 
conducting appointments in various parts of 
the country made it extremely difficult for him 
to retain and carry through his duties of 
choir-trainer to the Sheffield Festival. The 
strain of night journeys from Glasgow, New- 
castle and other places where he now held 
remunerative regular appointments, made it 
imperative that he should jettison some of his 
most taxing work. With infinite regret, after 
the 1908 Festival had been successfully carried 
through, he tendered his resignation. This 
was reluctantly accepted by the Committee 
and so ended the happy and invariably friendly 
associations which for fourteen years had existed 
between Dr. Coward and the Sheffield Festival 
Committee. Steps were at once taken to offer 
to him, in some tangible way, a proof of the 
regard and gratitude of the Committee. A 
testimonial fund was opened, to which there 
was a readyand generous response. The presen- 
tation, which consisted of four fine water-colour 
paintings by Frank Saltfleet, Austin Winter- 
bottom, J. McAdam and Alwyn Holland, the 
selection of Dr. Coward himself, was made on 



42 DR. HENRY COWARD 

January 13, 191 1, by Colonel Hughes, C.M.G., 
Treasurer of the Festival, acting for the Duke of 
Norfolk, who at the last moment was unable to 
attend. There was a representative gathering 
of Sheffield musical people presided over by 
Mr. T. Walter Hall, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee and a distinguished amateur musician. 
Among the many tributes to Dr. Coward's 
powers and position none would be more 
valued than the generous words spoken by Sir 
Henry J. Wood, quoted in the opening pages 
of this volume. Very significant, too, were the 
words of Mr. E. Willoughby Firth, one of the 
honorary secretaries of the Association, whose 
work in the cause of the Festival has had much 
to do with its success.* 

* The occasion recalled another memorable pre- 
sentation to the same recipient when, in June 1903, 
at the Town Hall, Sheffield, in the presence of five 
hundred guests. Lady Mary Howard presented the 
Festival Chorus-master with a life-size portrait of him- 
self in his degree robes, painted by Mr. James Moore, 
together with a group of bound scores, an album and a 
silver tea-urn for Mrs. Coward, the whole being a gift 
from the members of the Sheffield Musical Union. 



LIFE STORY 43 

Fame and Rewards 

During the twelve years with which I have 
been dealing, events marched rapidly, as much 
in the professional as in the artistic develop- 
ment of Henry Coward. 

The various stages need not be detailed here. 
The salient events of the period and a summary 
of his multifarious activities will suffice to 
show how rapidly the fame of the gifted 
chorus-master spread afar. Pliny's precept 
that opportunities lost can never be regained 
was always kept in mind. Dr. Coward had 
sown untiringly ; now the reaping of fortune 
and fame seemed near at hand and, good 
business man that he always was, he meant 
that it should be harvested. 

Mention has been made of his labours on 
behalf of amateur orchestral music in Sheffield. 
In 1899 the Sheffield Professional Orchestra 
was formed with Dr. Coward as conductor. 
At first the constitution was on a co-operative 
basis — no profits, no fees. The programmes 
were well planned ; a symphony or a concerto, 
sometimes both, at each concert. But the 
venture languished through lack of public 



44 DR. HENRY COWARD 

support, and finally, after three seasons, the 
concerts were discontinued. The organisation 
continued to exist, however, and for several 
years furnished the orchestra for the concerts 
of the Sheffield Musical Union. 

Dr. Coward became in increasing request as 
a teacher, lecturer, examiner and adjudicator. 
In the latter capacity he has figured at the 
National Welsh Eisteddfod, the competition 
festivals of Morecambe, Blackpool, Southport 
— in fact at most of the meetings of that type 
in all parts of the country. He was for many 
years Examiner for the Matriculation Certifi- 
cate of the Tonic Sol-fa College, Examiner in 
Practical Music for the Froebel Society, music- 
master at the Sheffield Training College (200 
students), Lecturer in Music at Sheffield Uni- 
versity, singing master at King Edward VII. 
School and at the Girls'.High School, Sheffield. 
He has edited two hymnals for the Primitive 
Methodist denomination, to which he con- 
tributed many tunes. 

Dr. Coward has a facile pen and a keenly 
discriminative observation. These, for fifteen 
years, he used as musical critic of the Sheffield 
Independent. Later, he became a contributor 



LIFE STORY 45 

over the signature "Diapason," to the Sheffield 
Weekly News. 

When the Sheffield Festivals were established 
he wrote a series of weekly articles in the same 
paper signed "Tremolo." These were mys- 
terious and very amusing productions, pur- 
porting to be written by a lady member of the 
chorus. The assumed "she" chatted glibly 
about the music, the millinery of the singers, 
the antics of " the dear Doctor," the doings of 
Mr. Wood, the merits and charms of " Cyril " 
to whom " she " was engaged, and a score of 
other topics, touched upon with a bewildering 
feminine inconsistency and with artful little 
lapses of grammar and spelling. For a long 
time the secret was well kept and not one of 
the Festival chorus suspected that " Tremolo " 
was none other than Dr. Coward himself I 

By his acceptance of various appointments 
in Scotland and the North of England to act 
as choral conductor of old established and 
famous musical societies. Dr. Coward has, 
within the last decade, made himself one of the 
chief musical personalities in the country. The 
first important citadel of choralism to fall to his 
all conquering baton (in 1901) was the Hudders- 



46 DR. HENRY COWARD 

field Festival Choral Society, an historic body, 
which, it may be noted, gave in London, in 
1907, a very fine performance of Bach's Mass 
in B minor at Queen's Hall, under Dr. Richter. 
The appointment to be chief of the Leeds 
Choral Union followed in 1905. The Leeds 
singers, too, have sung in London on several 
occasions and are rivals, in popularity, of the 
Sheffield Choir. A year later the Newcastle 
and Gateshead Choral Society secured his 
services and in 1908 the Glasgow Choral Union 
appointed the Sheffield musician to train and 
conduct the society's choral concerts. In 
addition to these permanent posts Dr. Coward 
was made chorus-master and co-conductor, 
with Mr. Wassili Safonoff, of the resuscitated 
Newcastle Festival (1909) and he undertook a 
similar joint position at the Southport Festival 
in the same year. He also directed a festival 
held at Aberdeen in 1910. For three seasons 
Dr. Coward conducted the Preston Choral 
Society and for a longer period the Barnsley 
St. Cecilia Society (resigned in 1908). 



CHAPTER III 
COMPOSITIONS 

Dr. Coward's compositions are all choral. 
They range from small Sunday school hymns 
and songs, of which he has composed a large 
number, to an oratorio and a festival cantata. 
In the larger forms he has written a sacred 
cantata " The Story of Bethany " (exercise for 
the degree of Mus. Bac. 1891); "Victoria and 
Her Reign" (cantata for ladies' voices and 
orchestra) ; " The King's Error," oratorio 
(exercise for the degree of Mus. Doc, Crystal 
Palace Tonic Sol-fa Festival 1894) ; " Heroes of 
Faith" (Sheffield 1895) ; "Tubal Cain," choral 
ballad for chorus and orchestra (Sheffield 
Musical Union, 1899); "Gareth and Linet," 
dramatic cantata (Sheffield Festival, 1902) and 
"The Fairy Mirror" (for ladies' voices with 
tableaux vivants), in addition to the early 
cantata " Magna Charta " already mentioned. 
It must frankly be said that the versatility of 
47 



48 DR. HENRY COWARD 

this many-sided man does not successfully 
encompass the composition of extended works. 
In a small form — a part-song, aglee (for example, 
his merry little piece "A Stitch in Time"), 
an anthem (" Lord, Thou art good," from 
"The Story of Bethany" is especially effective) 
or a hymn tune (his setting of " Jesu, high and 
holy" in leaflet form has reached a sale of 
over a million copies) — his flow of ideas and his 
resources in handling them are equal to all re- 
quirements. But his fount of musical invention 
is soon exhausted ; the trivial and the obvious 
are then drawn upon and the music speedily 
becomes mechanical and merely pedantic. 
He has a thorough knowledge of academic 
device. " The King's Error " and " Gareth and 
Linet" fulfil all the obligations of the text-books. 
What they lack is true, innate musical qualities, 
imagination, and the original thinking which can 
set aside a formula and utter an idea with fresh- 
ness and point. The rough reception accorded 
by the critics to "Gareth and Linet" at the 
Sheffield Festival of 1902 must have persuaded 
Dr. Coward that he was unwise in further pur- 
suing the thorny path of a composer, for since 
then he has written nothing of any importance. 



CHAPTER IV 

DR. COWARD AND CHORAL 
TECHNIQUE 

Manner and Methods 

Any one meeting Dr. Coward for the first 
time, without any foreknowledge of his per- 
sonaHty, would find it difficult to credit that 
this blunt, tearaway personage, with the bluff, 
hearty speech and unadorned manner, could 
be the famous musical force whose genius for 
choir-training has stamped itself directly and 
indirectly upon the singing of a nation. He is, 
on first acquaintance, as unlike the born leader 
of vast masses of artistic people as could be 
imagined. But on closer knowledge, the force 
of his personality begins to assert itself. He 
has an opinionative, dogmatic manner, acquired 
through a triumvirate of despotic occupations 
— those of schoolmaster, musical critic, and 
49 D 



50 DR. HENRY COWARD 

conductor. He is, by nature, autocratic. 
This is one of the secrets of his success. A 
man of finer manners might hesitate to, in 
fact could not, ride rough-shod over the sensi- 
bilities and susceptibilities of many refined 
persons with whom he is brought into contact, 
as does, on occasion, Dr Coward. He will 
stop a rehearsal to remonstrate with a departing 
member of a chorus, or sarcastically to inquire 
of a tardy arrival if his train was very late, the 
while the eyes of three hundred people are 
fixed upon the confused victim. If a lady 
is seen talking, he does not hesitate to address 
her by name, and suggest that the absence of 
incorrigible talkers at rehearsal is more appre- 
ciated than their presence. If in conversation, 
or in argument, or in a public or committee 
discussion he has an objection or a contradic- 
tion to make, there is no "kid-glove manner" 
in the uplifting of his voice ; he abhors a 
euphemism ; to him a spade is a spade and his 
" No," his " Yes," " I will " or " I will not," are 
emphatic and final. This is not to say that he 
is, by nature, either cantankerous or boorish. 
He is one of the kindliest and most warm- 
hearted men in the world. 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 51 

With children he is especially charming, and 
in play, on the golf-links, or on tour with 
family or friends, he is a sexagenarian Mark 
Tapley, adaptable, cheerful and polite. It is 
only in music that he is the man of blood and 
iron. There is more bark than bite in his 
ferocity, but it generally has the desired effect. 
His will becomes dominant ; character tells. 
Occasionally, at rehearsal, he lashes himself 
into a frenzy of passion (real or simulated) ; he 
sneers at, storms and abuses his half-terrified, 
half-amused forces, but none dare utter a word 
of protest or justification. The air is too 
electric ; Dr. Coward would explode, if crossed 
when he is in that highly charged condition. 
But he never loses his head and is discreet 
enough to know when to stop, or turn his 
blows into caresses and substitute the sitavitei 
for {he fort iter in iiiodo. 

Dr. Coward is seen at his best when appear- 
ing before a strange chorus for the first time. 
The newness of his method, together with 
the eccentricity of his mannerisms, occasions 
mingled wonder and amusement. Especially 
was this so when he took over his duties with 
the choirs at Glasgow, Newcastle, and Leeds 



52 DR. HENRY COWARD 

(Choral Union). In each case his predecessor 
had been a quiet man, musical and artistic, but 
somewhat conventional. The coming of Dr. 
Coward was like that of an eagle in a dove-cote. 
He fluttered the Volscians in Corioli with a 
vengeance ! 

The energy of the man is amazing. Audiences 
realise but a tithe of it when they see his con- 
ducting, vigorous as it is. They should see 
him at rehearsal. He has been known to break 
three stout batons in a night. On one occasion 
when rehearsing the Sheffield Festival Chorus 
in Berlioz's " Faust," he wanted to get the 
chorus to realise the varying personality of the 
types of people concerned in the choral music — 
peasants, drunken soldiers, rollicking students, 
devout villagers (in the Easter Hymn) and, 
finally, the lost souls in Pandemonium, snarling 
out their unholy gibberish. Dr. Coward, to 
emphasise the point, proceeded to enact a 
sample of each character. The fidelity of his 
impersonations, especially the bucolic vacuity 
of the peasants, trolling out their droned 
" fifths," and the bibulous tones of the revellers 
in Auerbach's Cellar, set the chorus in a roar 
and made one realise that Dr. Coward, who 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 53 

has probably never been inside a theatre in his 
life, save to hear an opera, is a born actor. 

He has neither " heart " nor " nerves." At 
the Newcastle Festival of 1909 he happened to 
be standing in the entrance hall of the hotel 
where he was staying. A new arrival, a friend, 
was asking for a porter to take his bag upstairs, 
the while complaining that, in an hotel of that 
size, there was no lift. Dr. Coward darted 
forward and without more ado, gripped the 
heavy bag, and before the astonished visitor, 
who was little more than half his age, could 
protest, he was well on his way to the third 
floor. During a visit to the Austrian Tyrol, he 
and I indulged in a little modest mountain- 
climbing, and though the energetic Doctor can 
give me nearly twenty years' start in age he 
proved a very lively pace-maker and was 
ready to take the floor at the dances organised 
in the hotel in the evening. 

His mentality is as alert as is his physique. 
So busy a man has little time for reading, and 
none for modern fiction. As a mental pick- 
me-up he reads daily the literary extracts in 
the " Realms of GoW " column in the Daily 
News. His knowledge of history, the classics, 



54 DR. HENRY COWARD 

and matters of art, outside music, is, without 
being profound, sufficiently general to enable 
his conversation and his talks to his choirs to 
be spiced with apt allusion and interesting 
turns of phrase and similes. He is a halting 
speaker. His ideas flow more rapidly than 
his utterance can deal with. The sentences 
tumble over each other, while the threads of his 
argument go astray, and half of them are never 
recovered. Digression is his strong point. 
For one sentence which reaches the haven of 
a full stop, two break off inconclusively at a 
dash, and a third is merely a string of exclama- 
tions. But behind it all there is design, if one 
has but the patience to let his "style " run its 
course. '' I used to think Dr. Coward wasted 
a lot of time at rehearsal in pointless talking," 
remarked a member of the 1902 Sheffield 
Chorus to the writer, " but now 1 see there 
is a plan in it ; there is method in his mad- 
ness." 

While on the subject of Dr. Coward's mental 
keenness, an incident may be related which not 
only serves to prove to what an extent he has 
cultivated the habit of memorising, but also it 
throws an instructive side-light on his know- 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 55 

ledge of human nature, and indicates how much 
of his success is due to his realisation of the 
aphorism that the proper study of mankind is 
man. 

It was while in Innsbruck, in the autumn of 
1905, that Dr. Coward learnt that he had been 
appointed to the coveted and important post of 
conductor of the Leeds Choral Union. To 
celebrate the occasion, he invited a small party 
of travelling companions to dine with him at 
an open-air cafe. From time to time he was 
seen to take a paper from his pocket, glance at 
it for a few moments, return it and then join 
in the conversation. At last one of his friends 
asked what he was doing — if it was the multi- 
plication table he was studying. 

" No," repUed Dr. Coward, " it is a list of 
the names of the chief officials and committees 
of the Leeds Choral Union (some forty in 
number). I am memorising it so that when I 
get back and am introduced to various people 
there, I shall know something of them and 
their position in the Society. People like to 
think they are already known, if only by name." 
In jest, some one offered to hear his lesson and 
he agreed. In that short time he had thoroughly 



56 DR. HENRY COWARD 

memorised all the names and initials of his 
future colleagues. 

From the foregoing some idea may be 
gathered of the characteristics and personality 
of this purposeful man. There are other and 
more intimate facets of his character which 
can only be touched upon here. He has had 
a large family to whom he has given, at the 
cost of much self-sacrifice in earlier years, the 
benefits of that first-class education denied to 
himself. His eldest son, Henry, is B.A. 
(Honours) London, B.A. (Honours) Cam- 
bridge, B.A. (Honours) Sheffield Universities, 
He was a choral scholar at King's College, 
Cambridge. The second son, Charles Ernest, 
was mathematical scholar, prizeman and i8th 
Wrangler, Cambridge (Caius College), and 
afterwards passed the exacting examination for 
the Indian Civil Service. He is now engaged 
in musical work in London, conducting choral 
and orchestral societies. The third son is 
Bachelor of Engineering at Sheffield University. 
The second daughter, Eleanor, took eight 
medals at the Royal Academy of Music, London, 
was elected A.R.A.M. and is a widely known 
teacher of singing. 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 57 

Dr. Coward's faith is deeply rooted, and 
whatever his fatigue, however arduous his 
week's work, involving an average of some 
fifteen hundred miles' travelling every seven 
days, he is almost invariably to be found, on 
Sunday mornings, in his place at Queen Street 
Congregational Church, where he has wor- 
shipped and served for upwards of forty 
years. He is a non-smoker and a life-long 
abstainer. 

In the winter season his activities are far- 
reaching and onerous. His regular engage- 
ments consist of the following rehearsals : 

Average 
Attendance 

Monday, Leeds Choral Union 300 

Tuesday, Newcastle and Gateshead Choral 

Union 330 

Wednesday, Glasgow Choral Union 300 

Thursday, Sheffield Musical Union 300 

Friday, Huddersfield Choral Society 275 

In addition to the above there are occasional 
rehearsals to be directed such as Morecambe 
Festival Choir (300), Aberdeen Festival (300), 
Southport Festival Choir (180). Every week 
there are two hundred students at the Sheffield 



58 DR. HENRY COWARD 

Training College to be taught, and when such 
tours as those to Germany, Canada, and round 
the world are in course of preparation, or 
any important concert in London is to be 
organised and rehearsed they take up the busy 
conductor's Saturdays. These take the form 
of what he calls "picnics." The members 
assemble at 2.30, rehearse for two hours, 
there is a break for tea and rest of one hour, 
and then they continue for another two 
hours. 

It is at such a time when the conditions are 
congenial and the aim some sort of " conquest," 
be it of a continent or a rival choir, that Dr. 
Coward's method is seen in full working order. 
Let us take as a model one of these four-hours 
rehearsals for the 191 1 World Tour and see 
what is the marvellous secret which can mould 
a large body of people into one vast artistic 
unit, moved by a common emotion and 
applying to its expression all the resources of 
a highly developed technique, and — here is the 
wonder of it — doing it all in the same way. 
But first we must examine the constitution of 
this special choir. The material is splendid. 
Every applicant for one of the two hundred 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 59 

places in the choir was tested by Dr. Coward, 
and as two out of every three were rejected it 
will be realised how large was the field of 
choice. Though named the Sheffield Choir it 
is made up of contingents from Dr. Coward's 
choruses in Sheffield, Leeds, Huddersfield, 
Bradford, Newcastle, Southport, and London. 
One member comes from Newport (Mon.), 
another from Shropshire, and four from London. 
Attendance at the weekly rehearsal costs some 
of the members £2. in railway fare and hotel 
expenses. From this some idea may be gathered 
as to the eagerness of singers to gain a place 
in the chorus, and the splendid spirit animating 
the entire body. 

Dr. Coward's first care, when the choir was 
finally chosen, was to issue to each member a 
booklet giving a list of the works to be studied, 
the poems, in full, of the part songs (all to be 
memorised) and the following characteristic 
"address," which, in itself, explains much of 
Dr. Coward's "method" and shows how he 
organises the enthusiasm as well as the musical 
attainments of his singers. 



6o DR. HENRY COWARD 

" Method is the Secret of Success 
"To achieve the goal of our endeavours — 
perfection of performance of each of the above 
pieces — we must take the motto : 

"METHOD IS the SECRET OF SUCCESS 

as a good working axiom. 

" In this relation there are several instructions 
to be followed, which, for a less important 
event might be considered not necessary. 

" I. It is advisable to underline in red ink 
the particular part you will have to sing. 

"2. Please number, in red ink, neatly and 
clearly, every bar or every third bar of every 
piece, as I shall issue instructions, later, 
stating how every bar of every piece is to be 
marked and sung. This will save immense 
time in rehearsal and lead to unity in per- 
formance. 

"3. Make special eflforts to memorise the 
words. The most neglected part of a piece is 
the words. The part I lay most stress upon 
being perfect is — the words. To assist you in 
getting these perfect in articulation, pronun- 
ciation, and characteristic diction, I have had 
the words of every piece printed in this 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 6i 

booklet, so that, being available in handy form, 
they can be looked over at odd moments in 
armchair, motor, train or tram. 

"method is the secret of success 
" 4. Practise reading aloud at least two pages 
of the part-song words daily. One page 
should be read mf and the next page pp with 
smart lip and tongue action. 

"A PLEA FOR constant RECAPITULATION 

"To memorise words or music, frequent 
repetition is necessary. Instrumentalists who 
astonish us by their memory-playing, learn 
their pieces by the frequent repetition neces- 
sary to overcome the technical difficulties. 
Let us take similar care, and we shall have no 
difficulty in memorising all the programme. 

"hints on PRIVATE PRACTICE 

" I. Practise each piece as though you had 
never seen it before. Even in pieces like the 
' Messiah ' and * Elijah,' sing every bar with 
care until it is absolutely correct. By this 
means incorrect phrasing, semi-tones sung for 
full tones in the ' Messiah,' runs and divisions, 
wrong chromatics, and many hoary errors and 



62 DR. HENRY COWARD 

stereotyped mistakes will be banished from our 
performances. 

"METHOD IS THE SECRET OF SUCCESS 
" 2. I would urge each singer to study the 
pieces seriatim. We are all inclined to give 
more attention to pieces we like than to those 
we rather dislike ; but as uniform excellence is 
demanded, please take the pieces in rotation. 

" 3. Practise the most difficult phrases of 
each piece much more than the easier portions. 
Put a circle round each difficult part and 
* grind' at it till it is mastered. This is im- 
portant, because a choir gets its character from 
the way it surmounts difficulties. If a choir 
sings ninety-nine per cent, of a piece well, and 
stumbles over the one per cent. — however 
difficult the phrase may be — it suffers in 
prestige. Therefore take care of the difficult 
phrases ; the easy parts can take care of 
themselves. 

"method is THE SECRET OF SUCCESS 
"4. Practise five minutes each day some 
difficult or/)/) phrases with special reference 
TO maintaining the pitch. Nothing 'gives 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 63 

a choir away' more than flattening. There- 
fore the determination and habit of mind to 
keep the pitch should be cultivated. As far as 
possible I have avoided accepting any singer 
who either sang flat or showed a tendency to 
lose the pitch (flatten). I trust that you, by 
giving attention to this important point, will 
prove that my selection of yourself has, in this 
respect, been justified. 

"REHEARSALS AND REGISTRATION 

"FULL, SECTIONAL, AND PRIVATE 

" It goes without saying that every available 
rehearsal should be attended, due notice of 
which will be given. 

" As we shall give over a hundred concerts 
(fancy, over a hundred times of thrill and 
delight I), to ask you to average one rehearsal 
per concert, will not be an extravagant demand. 
Please see that this be done either in Full or 
Sectional Rehearsals. These latter will be 
arranged for privately, and called by the Local 
Convener. 

" That every member may receive full credit 
for all good work done, you will find at the end 



64 DR. HENRY COWARD 

of this booklet a Diary in which you are re- 
quested to note day by day the full time you 
have devoted to the private study of the music 
or words of the works, as well as in Rehearsals 
(Full and Sectional). At each Full Rehearsal I 
hope to have the pleasure of noting your 
daily entries. 

"NECESSITY OF A HIGH IDEAL 

" Some of the above requirements may seem 
too exacting, but we have to remember that we 
have the choral honour and dignity of the 
Motherland in our keeping. We must, there- 
fore, have an exalted ideal, and must work 
with enthusiasm to attain to it. In addition 
to the above considerations, there are two 
very important reasons why I most strongly 
urge — nay, almost command — persistent work 
from the present moment to the 24th of 
March. 

"The first of these is: The voice preserva- 
tion ASPECT which calls FOR OUR MOST 

serious thought. 

" By having both the words and music 
thoroughly mastered, you will be able to PLACE 
your voice PROPERLY foreachword and sound, 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 65 

and thus avoid vocal strain. This will enable 
you to keep your voices in form all through 
the Tour, as in Canada. Those who lack this 
power must expect voice failure. 

"The second reason is: The pleasure 

PRESERVATION ASPECT. 

" I am anxious that nothing preventable shall 
interfere with our pleasure and freedom from 
anxiety while on the Tour ; but the sense of 
inefficient preparation of any piece would be 
such an incubus to the whole party that I 
appeal to all to accept cheerfully the drudgery 

of PERSISTENT PRACTICE tO secure PROSPECTIVE 

PLEASURE, or in other words : 

" Take present pain 
For future gain. 

" However, 1 have such confidence in the 
choir as a whole, that I feel I am voicing your 
sentiments when I say that, if there be any 
individual member who does not regard the 
unique character of the Tour as calling for 
exceptional and determined efforts to achieve 
perfection, it is advisable for that member to 
resign at once, as none of us want any cold, 
half-hearted singers in our ranks. 



66 DR. HENRY COWARD 

" With warmest greetings to all my colleagues 
in the enterprise, 

" Believe me, 

" Yours very truly, 

" H. COWARD." 

Such is the spirit in which the Conductor 
approaches his work. The response is loyal, 
for the rehearsals show but one or two absentees, 
and the amount of work carried through is 
phenomenal. Dr. Coward says he does not 
allow more than three rehearsals for the most 
exacting work. Not a moment is lost. Every 
bar being numbered, reference to any place is 
instantaneous. The ladies are hatless ; every 
eye must see the beat. There is no talking ; 
conversation in the ranks is condemned as 
much by the singers as by the conductor. A 
great saving of time at rehearsal is effected by 
the issue to every member of the choir of a 
schedule of minute instructions, as to the 
minutiae of expression which are to be re- 
viewed at the forthcoming rehearsal. 

The following examples, taken from a 
schedule of instructions, will serve to show to 
what an acme of finish the choir is trained in 
a myriad points of detail and finish. 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 



67 



Please enter on your copies, very plainly, the instructions 

relating to your own part, which are given below. 

Disregard the instructions to the other parts. 

NOTES ON INTERPRETATION OF "FIRE, 
FIRE MY HEART" (Morley) 



Firm sustained forte. Cancel 

pressure mark > 
Strike firmly. 

jf quick tnolto dim to piano, 
ff firm attack. 

fP 

fp on minim. 



Same as bar 3. 

Sing as marked in copy. 

Prominent in 4 beats, other 
parts p 

Prominent in 4 beats, other 
parts p 

Syncopated note//>; pressure 
to be put on each quaver. 

Sing E \> very firmly. 

Sing real pianissimo but pre- 
serve same relative varia- 
tions of pressure on notes. 

Sing as marked in copy. 

Real pianissimo in 2nd 
soprano. 

ist soprano as follows : 
< p > 

■ 



Bar. 


Beat. 


Voice. 


I 




All 


2 


2 


2nd S. 




3 


All 




4 


1st S. 


3 


I 


istS. 


3 


3 


2nd S. 

C. T. 

B. 


4 






5 and 6 






7 


2 to 4 


B. 


8 


2 to 4 


2nd S. 


9 and 10 


4 


2nd S. 


II 


I 


ist S. 


12 to 24 




All 


24 to 27 




All 


28 to Zi 




2nd S. 


28 to 33 




ist S. 




68 



DR. HENRY COWARD 



Bar. 
34 

35 



36 and 37 

37 and 38 
38 to 43 



43 

44 
45 to 49 



50 
51 
51 
52 
52 
53 
53 



Beat. 
2 to 4 

2 to 4 



Voice. 

c. 

ist S. 



T. 

B. 

2nd S. 



T. B. 

C. 

I St S. 

2nd S. 



I St S. 

c. 

2nd S. 

T. 
I St S. 

B. 

T. 



Four notes well marked 

then p 
Four notes well marked 

then p 
(Then call for help) 

V V V /p 

Prominent < > 
Four notes prominent. 
Leading voice. Sing chiefly 

against musical accent 

as follows : 

f PfP 



r f 



r^' 



rf I ,-JP| 

and call for help, a-las ! 



but none comes nigh me 1 
In each part sing the first 
note of the point of 
imitation ff with full 
broad vowel at the 
word " Fa " (pronounce 
" Fah ") then quickly 
shade off to piano, say- 
ing all the " las " very 
lightly at the tip of the 
tongue. This will allow 
the point of imitation to 
be heard distinctly in 
each part. 

All these " Cs " must be 
struck spasmodically 
with very quick release 
to wi/> (-= ff, mp ox ffP). 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 



69 



Bar. 


Beat. 


Voice. 


54 to 56 




All 


57 to end 




All 



Dim to p in all parts. 

Repetition of above instruc- 
tions, only last phrase 
must be sung as / as 
possible with a good tone 



"THE LADY ORIANA" (Wilbye) 

This madrigal is unusually difficult to interpret on 
account of the close imitations, which to get clearly 
defined require great vocal control and agility, but if 
the following directions be carefully marked and fol- 
lowed the great charms of this delightful and clever 
madrigal will be unfolded to the listener. 

The music consists of contrasted phrases, of points 
of imitation, being followed by plain chordal passages. 



C'alto theme to be promi- 
nent, soprano p, tending 
to pp. 

Theme prominent /. 

Piano, semi staccato. 

f P fP ^''^^' =^^ P 

The La-dy 

Theme/, all other parts/*. 
Plain smooth singing as 

marked in copy. 
The word " all " in every part 

to be struck / and then 

rapid dim to p at words 

" in the." 
Plain chording as in copy. 
As bars 11-12. 



Bar. 
I and 2 


Beat. 


Voice. 

c. 


3 

4 and 5 


3 

2 


2n d T. 
istT. 


4, 5,6 


4 


I St S. 


6,7,8 
9 and 10 


I 


B. 
All 


II and 12 




All 


13 to 15 
16 and 17 




All 
All 



70 



DR. HENRY COWARD 



Bar. 
l8 to 22 



22 

23 
23 

24 to 33 

34 to 37 

38 and 39 

39 

38 to 40 
41 to 44 



Beat. 



45 



Voice. 
All 



istS. 
2nd S. 

All 
2nd S. 

c. 

1st S. 

T. B. 
All 



All 



Plain, as in copy. 

f >P 

r f f' • Other voices /"tdMO. 

1 r ri- H 

f ^ p . 

I. I i U t ' i 

A thou-sand, thousand 

Plain chording as in copy; 
mind contrasts in p and/. 

Melody prominent, other 
voices subordinate. 

Melody for six notes promi- 
nent, then p. 

Take up theme prominently 
for six notes. The high 
2nd soprano must be 
sung pp. 

To be subordinate to the 
ladies' voices. 

Let each voice give accent 
on the syllables " vir," 
" ed," " crown." The ist 
and 2nd sopranos will 
have some difficulty in 
doing this until they have 
studied it carefully. 

Let each part sing the first 
two notes loudly to the 
syllables " which," " Ce," 
then dim to p on suc- 
ceeding syllables " re," 
"mony ended." By doing 
this in every part the 
imitations will be made 
clear. 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 



71 



Bar. 


Beat. 


Voice. 


54 to 62 




All 


63 to end 




All 



Plain chording to be sung as 
in copy. 

Give extra accent on the 
word "live" whenever 
it occurs in any voice. 
Sing the quavers (half 
beats) forcibly. Say 
every word clearly. Take 
ample breath and finish 
as loudly as possible ff 
orfff. 



SPECIAL NOTE 
You will notice that in the madrigals, the same in- 
struction is repeated time after time, so that if you 
learn to do a certain thing once (for instance, the 
striking of a note /and the sudden decrease to />) you 
should be able to apply the principle to all similar 
phrases. In a way, it is a trick, but to do it (the trick) 
well, you must practise it assiduously until you can do 
it sub-consciously. Practise each example separately. 
You will then get into the way of doing it spontaneously, 
which is the end in view. 



His material ready to hand then, the notes 
learnt, the words in most cases memorised, the 
famous trainer now proceeds to " Cowardise " 
the music. First he rehearses the discipHne of 
the baton ; how, that at a given signal, a par- 
ticular effect shall be forthcoming. If he signs 



72 DR. HENRY COWARD 

for a pPf a pianissimo there must be, or he will 
know the reason why. He has perfected a 
kind of "floating tone," an ethereal, blended, 
ambient sound which, the outcome of the 
strictest selection and self-subordination on 
the part of every unit in the choir, yields one 
of the most enchanting forms of musical 
pleasure that it is possible to conceive. If a 
clock cannot be heard ticking through a chord of 
this tone, sung by three hundred voices, the con- 
ductor fines them down until the test is passed. 
" If your neighbour can hear you it is too loud," 
he cries. All in the choir know the sign for 
this toneless pianissimo, and woe betide the 
unthinking one who exceeds his or her due 
proportion. Another choral effect, for which 
he frequently calls, is a sudden withdrawal of 
breath pressure on a note bearing an accent. 
He does not allow the singers to accent, as it 
were, the whole value of the note, but only the 
initial attack ; by this means the accent is 
vignetted and given infinitely more significance. 
In this little detail of virtuosity the choir is 
very expert. He realises that correct vowel 
definition and unity of mouth cavity positions 
are essential for the securing of a perfect 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 73 

blend. By insisting on this requisite and by 
constant " pattern " with his singing voice, he 
shapes the collective tone until each part is 
unified, and the blend comes to the ear like 
the four parts of a highly-trained string quartet. 
The dynamic nuances of which he is so fond — 
and which he indulges in a little too freely 
sometimes when repose would be preferable — 
are measured to a fraction of a beat ; the 
pressure and taking off of the breath must be 
done to exact plan, or the ensemble suffers. A 
quotation will illustrate the point. 



From the chorus " Surely, He Hath Borne" (Messiah) 
(Voice parts only) 

P 




wound-ed for our trans- 



74 



DR. HENRY COWARD 




gres-sions, He was bruis 



ed, He was 




gres-sions, He was bruis - ed. He .... was 



Ij^ 



X=X: 



^$^ 



^¥^ 



gres-sions, He was bruis • ed, 



He was 



Conductor's Note.— The sustained notes which end 
in prepared discords must be increased for five quavers, 
then molto dim. to p. 

In the preparation of what a pianist would 
call " part-playing " — the prominence or re- 
ticence of a particular part or phrase — Dr. 
Coward speaks constantly of what he calls the 
Law of Sympathy. It is a well-known fact in 
refined chorus-singing, that singers sub-con- 
sciously adapt themselves to their tonal environ- 
ment. That is to say, if, in a pianissimo 
passage, one voice is unduly loud, the adjacent 
singers unconsciously increase their tone ; con- 
versely, a weak voice or part has more than an 
individual minus result upon the aggregate 
tone. Dr. Coward warns his chorus against 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 75 

such influences. He asks on the other hand 
for the sympathy and self-abnegation of the 
singers in harmonic, fugal or imitative passages, 
in order that due prominence may be obtained 
by part or parts for the yielding of a special 
effect. A good example of this may be cited in 
the closing bars of the chorus " Behold, God the 
Lord," in "Elijah." The monotoned phrase, 
" Onward came the Lord," is made prominent 
in the alto and tenor parts, the while the whis- 
pering sopranos and basses carry on a flowing, 
undisturbed legato passage. 

One of the vital elements in Dr. Coward's 
system is the arrangement of his crises. It is 
in this matter that his masterly generalship is 
best exemplified. He never shoots his bolt too 
soon. His choir piles Pelion upon Ossa, as in 
the Amen chorus in the " Messiah," but the 
master-climax is always held in reserve until 
the moment when it can be superimposed with 
overwhelming effect. To quote from the 
" Messiah " once more, the most brilliant thing 
the chorus do, in their unique performance of 
that work, is the chorus " His Yoke is Easy." 
Technically it is a tour deforce with a thrilling 
climax where the sopranos, after a bar and a 



76 DR. HENRY COWARD 

half of repeated high F's, without snatching a 
breath, suddenly flash up to B flat, as if in 
triumphant exuUation. 

Rhythm is another matter of vital import in 
Dr. Coward's system. The feeling of rhythm 
must not be obscured, particularly in soft sus- 
tained passages where the danger is greatest. 
Such an instance is to be found at the end of 
the Mystic Chorus in Elgar's " The Kingdom." 
Here the conductor is very severe on his 
forces if they sing "a pointless, rhythmless 
piano." 

There are two other branches of choir-sing- 
ing wherein Dr. Coward has materially ad- 
vanced the art. These are in the respects of 
diction and tone-colour. 

In the matter of enunciation, he tells his 
choir that if the audience have to refer to their 
books of words, there is something wrong. 
Crisp articulation is studied from the first. 
Oral gymnastics are practised and dental, 
labial and compound consonants are exag- 
gerated. He makes the singers read (not sing) 
the words aloud, emphasising every consonant 
and separating those in juxtaposition. When 
oral clearness has been obtained, the proper 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 77 

placing of the consonants is studied and 
emphasised, and their correct value deter- 
mined and apportioned. This solicitude for 
the marking of every consonant led to a 
curious effect at the Newcastle Festival of 
1909. The choir (trained by Dr. Coward) was 
banked up on the stage of the Palace Theatre, 
a place quite unsuited to festival music, owing 
to its dry and aggressive resonance. In Professor 
Bantock's " Omar Khayyam," the consonants 
were so clean-cut and emphasised that they 
came across the auditorium with a rattle like 
volleys of miniature rifle-shots, quite distract- 
ing the attention from, and indeed, marring 
the effect of the music in certain passages. 
In a proper concert hall, the vocal tone, 
amplified by a suitable resonance, would have 
put the consonants into correct focus and the 
effect would have been excellent. 

Finally, the crowning glory of Dr. Coward's 
method lies in his power to make his singers 
realise the dramatic and emotional import of 
the music they sing. It is in this respect that 
the magnetism of his personality, that " personal 
equation " to which he so frequently alludes, 
becomes operative. His temperament is so 



78 DR. HENRY COWARD 

warm, his imagination so vivid that he sees 
through the possibiHties of a phrase, a page, a 
chorus or a complete work, and can extract 
every ounce of what it will yield in the way of 
interpretation. One may not always agree 
with his readings. He has been strongly 
assailed on various points. But none can 
doubt the force and thoroughness of what he 
does. There is always a picture. 

Dr. Coward relies, in this matter, on two 
principal media, which may be classified under 
the heads of Declamation and Psychology. 
In the former class are comprised the infinite 
colour tints and emotional suggestiveness which 
a trained singer can derive from the proper 
emphasis and oratorical treatment of words 
and sentences. Just as a good actor or orator 
can enhance the point of spoken words by a 
hundred little devices of stress, lingering, a 
fractional silence before a salient word, the 
niceties of punctuation, proportionate emphasis 
and, chiefly, a timbre of tone reflecting the 
emotional meaning of word or phrase, so is it 
possible for a choir to be trained to exercise all 
the subtleties of good elocution. (save in the 
respects of inflection and speed, which, in 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 79 

music, are fixed quantities) to the illumination 
of the text and the vitalising of the music. 
Dr. Coward has realised the infinite poten- 
tialities contained in the fact just stated, and it is 
because he has applied it so thoroughly in the 
preparation of his choirs, that they sing with 
such intelligence and dramatic veracity. The 
opening words in the chorus, " Surely, He hath 
borne our griefs," from the " Messiah," derive 
a greatly enhanced significance from the choir 
being taught to dwell upon the consonant 
sound, which, indeed, is heard before the beat, 
and is followed by a quick withdrawal of breath 
pressure. In Elgar's " Go, Song of Mine," the 
broadened vowel-sound and exaggerated aspi- 
rate in the word " hardness " induce a quality 
of tone fitting to the word, while later, " grief " 
is sung with a deepened resonance and timbre, 
together with a lingering treatment of the 
consonants, imparting a semblance of " tears in 
the voice." A thousand instances might be 
quoted further to illustrate the point, but those 
named will serve to show how great a part 
verbal suggestion plays in the singing of Dr. 
Coward's choirs. 

The words " mood " and " atmosphere " are 



8o DR. HENRY COWARD 

so frequently used in speaking or writing of 
music, that they are, to some extent, discredited. 
Yet no others will serve exactly to describe 
the most potent quality of the best choral 
singing. Dr. Coward holds the view that the 
derisive chorus, " He trusted in God," in the 
" Messiah " should be sung with derision, not 
in the same tones as are used for the poignant 
" Behold the Lamb of God," or the celestial 
"Glory to God." He believes, and carries out 
his theory, that when the Soul of Gerontius 
says to the Angel, when approaching the 
"fierce hubbub" of the Demons, "How sour 
and how uncouth a dissonance," that the 
following demonic chorus must be sung in a 
sour and uncouth manner. In dramatic music, 
he characterises, by means of style and tone- 
colour, the personality of the enactors or nar- 
rators ; as for examples the drunken revellers 
in Auerbach's cellar in " Faust," trolling out 
their blasphemous mock "Amens," the bright- 
toned students singing their college song ; or, 
in " Gerontius," the moving pathos of the Souls 
in Purgatory, singing " Lord, Thou hast been 
our refuge," the pure exaltation of the hymn 
" Praise to the Holiest " ; or, in Professor 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 8i 

Bantock's " Omar Khayyam," the dark, fateful 
mystery of the Hne " The Me within Thee 
blind." 

A conductor must have some marvellous 
grasp of the psychology of a collective body of 
artistic people, when he can so work upon the 
unified brain of the chorus as to make them 
yield these strange and moving effects. For it 
is not only in the obvious tricks of choral 
virtuosity, possessed by every prize-winning 
conductor, that Dr. Coward excels — though 
he can on occasion play to the gallery and 
engineer an ad captandiim effect. 

He can tap the deeper sources of expression 
latent in a mass of singers, and make them 
surrender finely wrought, largely conceived, 
and long-sustained emotional phases of mind 
which, by means of choral art, are transmitted 
to the audience, thereby enhancing immeasur- 
ably the veracity and appeal of the music. 

No account of Dr. Coward is complete with- 
out reference to his mannerisms. At rehearsal 
he is impulsive, eccentric, full of strange oaths 
(in a Pickwickian sense) and wise aphorisms, 
merry, thunderous, coaxing, discursive, anec- 
dotal — all in turn, but he is never dull. He 

F 



82 DR. HENRY COWARD 

has an inexhaustible store of epithets and 
adjectives, and will bully or wheedle a choir as 
the mood fits him, or as seems likeliest to secure 
his wishes. " You miserable tenors," he will 
call out, " afraid of a top G." " You sing it as 
if you were all club-footed," he tells the basses. 
" Don't talk to that lady ; if she's not marked 
her copy, don't remind her ; leave her to her 
conscience." " I told you to mark it forte," he 
shouts in a rage, to a timid-voiced soprano. 
" It is marked forte," she ventures to say. 
"Well then, why don't you fort?" he re- 
torts, amid laughter. "You are singing this 
madrigal as if it were a Buddhist praying 
machine," he tells them, " singing is not like 
churning." "Hello! here is the recurring 
decimal again," he remarks, as an habitual 
late-comer makes her way to her seat. Once, 
after a particularly tame and faulty perform- 
ance of a " Messiah " chorus, he paused for 
a moment, and then announced, "There will 
be a silver collection," referring to the local 
custom of performing Handel's oratorio in 
chapels where no charge is made for admission. 
A volume might be filled with the jokes and 
reproaches, the sallies and epigrams of the 



CHORAL TECHNIQUE 83 

tireless conductor. Sufficient, however, has 
been told of the man and his method to 
furnish some idea as to how he has brought 
the art of choral-training well-nigh to perfec- 
tion. Through all, he retains the affection of 
his workers. When rehearsal is over, he is 
among the chorus, chatting and answering 
questions, with abrupt and yet cheery good- 
nature. One of his singers broke into poetry, 
in lines which are worth quoting for their 
ingenious play upon the Conductor's name. 
They may fittingly close this personal chapter 
on " The Pioneer Chorus-master." 

TO DOCTOR COWARD 

Coward ! and yet like Romeo the lover, 
'"Tis but thy name that is thine enemy." 
Not in thee 'tis to fight from under cover 
Or shrink, all-vanquished, from unequal fray. 

Thy martial spirit ne'er is overpowered, 

Thy perseverance, courage never lacks ; 

And 'neath the leadership of gallant "Coward," 

We " scale " the heights and quicken our " attacks." 

Yet 'tis no Marshal's Baton that thou wieldest, 
And which doth hold thy forces in command ; 
At St. Cecilia's ancient shrine thou yieldest 
Sweet fruits of song, grown ripe beneath thy wand. 



CHAPTER V 

"THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR" 
(Sheffield Musical Union) 

In a biography of Dr. Henry Coward it is 
essential, for completeness, that some par- 
ticulars be furnished of the wonderful choral 
organisation now known as The Sheffield Choir, 
a body with which Dr. Coward's wide fame 
and his chief life-work are indissolubly united. 
But, first, the position must be made clear as to 
the exact identification of "The Sheffield Choir." 
Dr. Coward's "Sheffield Choir" is not the 
Sheffield Festival Chorus, which he has never 
conducted out of Sheffield. The assumption, 
a few years ago, by the Sheffield Musical Union 
(which is the official title of Dr. Coward's 
choral society), of the name "The Famous 
Sheffield Choir," was resented in Sheffield as 
being likely to convey the impression that the 
Sheffield Festival Chorus was referred to by 
84 



"THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR" 85 

that name. It was, the objectors said, the 
Festival Chorus which first carried afar the 
fame of Sheffield. That was "The Famous 
Sheffield Chorus." Besides, urged others, there 
are other eminent and older choral societies 
in the city. The Amateur Musical Society, of 
which Sir Henry J. Wood is conductor, is "a 
famous Sheffield Choir." 

There may, at that time, have been some 
ground for this complaint, especially as regards 
the Festival Choir, for which the Musical Union 
was, it is certain, frequently mistaken, both by 
critics and audiences. But time has gradually 
righted the matter. There has been no dis- 
position on the part of the Musical Union to 
borrow a reflected glory from the Festival 
Chorus. The officials scrupulously advertise 
the correct title of the society. The Musical 
Union, being Dr. Coward's own choral pre- 
serve, contributed for one Festival nearly fifty 
per cent, of the total membership. As time 
went on, and the various choral duties of the 
Musical Union singers became more taxing — 
foreign tours, London and Sheffield concerts, &c. 
— their representation in the triennial Festival 
chorus became proportionately less, but they 



86 DR. HENRY COWARD 

still have a proud percentage of members in 
that select and highly organised body. If, 
then, the personnel of the Musical Union may 
not be so strictly censored or so representative 
of a wide field of selection as is the Festival 
choir, which, being tested throughout anew 
every three years, is triennially fresh, there are 
counterbalancing advantages which, if they do 
not entirely serve to equalise the two organisa- 
tions, go far towards doing so. The Unionists 
are in constant practice under the same con- 
ductor, and on the same vocal method ; their 
numerous tours and out of town engagements 
have necessitated the preparation of a large 
repertory of works, these sometimes having to 
be learnt in a very brief period, and by frequent 
appearances they have cultivated choral en- 
durance and a collective concert habit which 
prevents such factors as " nerves," fatigue, 
staleness and other detriments creeping into 
their singing. 

To return, however, to their claim to the title 
of "The Sheffield Choir," they may be allowed to 
have established it by a process of what the law 
calls " Prescription." As the following history 
of their doings shows, they have sung in 



"THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR" 87 

different parts of England, in Germany twice, 
and in Canada, and have done infinite credit 
to their conductor, themselves and their 
native city. A better title might have been 
" Dr. Coward's Choir," but as " The Sheffield 
Choir" they elect to be known, and so long 
as their individuality is thoroughly understood, 
and they continue to sing as magnificently as 
they have done in the past, no one can grudge 
them their chosen title. 

In the earlier chapters of this volume, some 
reference has been made to the inception of 
this fine choir. The following brief history 
will supply the salient features of their honour- 
able record. 

Established in 1876, with Dr. Coward as 
trainer and conductor, the society aimed, from 
its very modest beginning as the Tonic Sol-fa 
Association, at giving attention to the teaching 
of sight-reading. Attached to the society were 
elementary and advanced singing and theory 
classes. These, it may be remarked in passing, 
formed a training-ground for many local choir- 
masters. 

Steady progress was made. Dr. Coward in- 
sisting from the first upon those qualities of 



88 DR. HENRY COWARD 

diction, dramatic expression, absolute precision, 
and unity of vowel definition which, through the 
years, have come to full fruition in the singing 
of the choir as we hear it to-day. 

In 1892, the society, having in the meantime 
changed its name to that of the Sheffield 
Musical Union, there began a series of con- 
certs of more importance than those hitherto 
given. The first was the performance of Sir 
Hubert (then Dr.) Parry's " Judith," conducted 
by the composer. This was a great success, 
quickening the activities of the Union and 
further increasing local interest in choral 
music. 

In 1895 the Union played an important part 
in the inception of the Sheffield Festival, by 
means of the trial performance of " Elijah " 
(already referred to in the Chapter on the 
Sheffield Festivals). 

In 1899, Mr. W. S. Skelton and Mr. A. S. 
Burrows were appointed chairman of council 
and secretary respectively. 

These appointments soon had a beneficial 
effect on the policy of the society, which is as 
well managed on its business as on its artistic 
side. A visit to Wentworth VVoodhouse, on 



"THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR" 89 

the invitation of Earl Fitzwilliam, to sing in an 
important choral concert also took place in 
1899. 

In 1901, the first of a series of annual perform- 
ances of " The Messiah " was given. These 
have become famous throughout the North of 
England. Dr. Coward has specialised in 
''The Messiah." Choir-masters and singers 
attend these annual revivals to learn how, by 
means of close study and attention to details 
of expression, the familiar strains can be in- 
vested with new interest. The society makes 
a handsome profit on these annual concerts, 
which, thereby, serve a material as well as an 
artistic purpose. 

1902 saw the first of those choral ex- 
cursions, now regarded as being the special 
" line " of the society. Leeds, the stronghold of 
Northern chorus-singing, was visited, with the 
object of letting the neighbours and friendly 
rivals hear Dr. Coward's forces in a programme 
of alia capella pieces. The demonstration 
was so successful that an invitation to return 
to give a performance of "The Messiah" 
speedily followed. A further honour was paid 
the society, in 1902, by the Handel Festival 



90 DR. HENRY COWARD 

authorities (Crystal Palace) inviting one hun- 
dred and thirty singers to be sent, to take part 
in the great national event. The contingent 
was the largest ever sent by a single provincial 
society. Since then, every three years, the 
Union has supplied one hundred and fifty or 
more members to sing at the Handel Festival. 
It was while singing at the Handel Festival of 
1909 that news came to the choir of the tragi- 
cally sudden death of Mr. J. H. Lawson, the 
Treasurer of the society, who, with Mrs. Lawson, 
had a large share in building up the prosperity 
of the Union. 

1904 saw the Musical Union make its first ap- 
pearance at the Queen's Hall. As has already 
been indicated. Professor Kruse organised 
a London Musical Festival and engaged the 
Sheffield body to sing — a mark of signal honour. 
Mr. Weingartner was the conductor. The 
works performed were Elgar's " The Dream of 
Gerontius," Beethoven's Choral Symphony 
and Beethoven's Mass in D. The singing of 
the Sheffield organisation was a revelation to 
the London audiences. Critics and conductor 
heaped appreciation on the choir and its chief, 
and from this point we may date the wide- 



"THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR" 91 

reaching fame of the chorus. At a banquet 
given by Professor Kruse to Mr. Weingartner, 
Dr. Coward and a number of musical guests at 
the close of the Festival, Mr. Weingartner, in 
proposing a toast said : " England has, so far, 
beaten Germany in choral singing, and we 
shall have to send our German conductors to 
Sheffield to be taught how to train choruses." 

Since that memorable event, the Union has 
sung many times in London, taking part in 
various works under conductors of widely 
different methods. The singers have, thereby, 
acquired a valuable habit of mobility and sensi- 
tive alertness ; they are wonderfully plastic and 
receptive to the impress of temperament. 

Among the conductors under whose direction 
they have sung at various times may be named 
Dr. Richter, Sir Henry J. Wood, Sir Hubert 
Parry, Professor Bantock, Sir A. C. Mackenzie, 
Mr. Arthur Nikisch, Mr. Weingartner, Sir 
Edv/ard Elgar, Dr. Cowen, Dr. Harriss, Mr. 
Coleridge- Taylor, Dr. Vogt, Dr. Ham and Mr. 
Alec Maclean. 

1906 found the Musical Union carrying 
their choral campaign to foreign shores. In 
conjunction with a contingent from the Leeds 



92 DR. HENRY COWARD 

Choral Union, a Yorkshire Chorus was or- 
ganised, to visit the Rhine Provinces. Concerts 
were given at Diisseldorf, Cologne and Frank- 
fort, under the direction of Dr. Coward, and 
in conjunction with local orchestras. "The 
Messiah" and "The Dream of Gerontius" 
were the principal works performed. The 
tour was more than successful ; it was a 
triumphant progress. The municipalities of 
the cities visited offered lavish hospitality to 
the invaders from Yorkshire, and the general 
verdict of the German critics was to acclaim 
the choir as one of the finest musical organisa- 
tions in the world. There can be no mistake 
about the sensation and enthusiasm which 
their singing created. 

In the same year, the Sheffield Society had 
the distinction of singing in the presence of 
Her Majesty Queen Alexandra, who attended 
a concert given by the London Symphony 
Orchestra in which the Sheffield singers were 
taking part. 

1907 held two interesting experiences for 
the much-travelled choralists. They sang before 
Sir Wilfred Laurier, the Canadian Premier, at 
a concert at Queen's Hall, and they visited 



"THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR" 93 

Birmingham, to sing in " Elijah " in the Town 
Hall — the very home of Mendelssohn's popular 
work. 

1908 was a memorable year in the history of 
the society. The colossal scheme of taking two 
hundred singers to give a series of sixteen con- 
certs in eleven days in Canada, was conceived 
by Dr. C. A. E. Harriss, and organised and 
carried out by the Union. It was at first thought 
to be impracticable, but, Dr. Harriss, Dr. 
Coward and the Committee, by foresight and 
determination, conquered all obstacles. The 
places visited were Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, 
Ottawa, Buffalo, Niagara, St. Catherine's, 
Hamilton, Brantford, London, Lindsay and 
Peterborough. The only full day of recrea- 
tion was spent in the neighbourhood of 
Niagara Falls. The choir just traversed the 
frontier between Canada and the United States, 
on the occasion of their visit to Buffalo. The 
tour, despite some trying experiences, insepar- 
able from an enterprise of that magnitude, was 
enjoyed by the members, who endured rigours 
of climate and fatigues of travel for the sake of 
the services to the cause of choral music which 
such a tour was calculated to render. 



94 DR. HENRY COWARD 

During the tour, the choir and conductor 
were the recipients of many cordial tokens of 
welcome. There were receptions at Montreal 
by Sir Montagu and Lady Allen, by Sir George 
and Lady Drummond and by Mayor Payette 
and the Corporation. At Ottawa the Mayor 
and Corporation entertained the chorus and 
officials to luncheon, and the Governor-General, 
Earl Grey, and Lady Grey held a reception at 
Government House. The Mayor and Corpora- 
tion of Toronto and the Toronto Clef Club 
paid the visitors a similar compliment, while at 
Niagara, Buffalo and St. Catherine's there were 
further hospitalities. 

In July 1910, the Union had the pleasant 
experience of singing in "The Dream of 
Gerontius" at Arundel Castle, on the invita- 
tion of the Duke and Duchess of Norfolk. Sir 
Henry J. Wood conducted. The Duke of 
Norfolk's close connection with Sheffield, and 
his assistance in the musical affairs of the city 
(he is President of the Festival), served to add 
interest to a significant event. 

Later in the same year, a second visit to 
Germany organised by Mr. W. L. Lindlar of 
Sheffield was undertaken and proved almost 



"THE SHEFFIELD CHOIR" 95 

as successful as the first. Owing to the greater 
distance travelled in so short a time the en- 
durance of the singers was severely taxed, but 
their loyalty never wavered. The singing was 
again on a high plane of excellence, and once 
more, lavish hospitality and cordial receptions 
were bestowed upon the visitors. The towns 
visited were Aachen, Diisseldorf, Essen, Leipsig, 
and Dresden. 

The latest and, so far, the most far-reaching 
venture of the Sheffield musicians, is the Round 
the World (British Dominions) Tour organised 
for the summer of 191 1, from March until 
September. Dr. C. A. E. Harriss, who has 
been concerned in the organisation of colossal 
musical tours during the last ten years, is the 
moving spirit of the project. The vast and com- 
plicated machinery necessary for the organisa- 
tion of nearly a hundred concerts in all parts 
of the world, the transport, housing and control 
of a party of two hundred and twenty, and 
the pre-arrangement of receptions, banquets, 
sight-seeing, &c. on a six months' tour is under 
his hands. Among the places to be visited are 
Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Chicago, 
St. Louis, Cincinnati, Indianopolis, St. Paul, 



96 DR. HENRY COWARD 

Winnipeg, Vancouver, Victoria (B.C.), Hono- 
lulu, Brisbane, Sydney, Auckland, Wellington, 
Christchurch, Dunedin, Melbourne, Adelaide, 
Perth, Durban, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Bloem- 
fontein, Kimberley and Cape Town. 

The choral repertory comprises a hundred 
compositions, ranging from the great oratorios 
of Bach, Handel and Mendelssohn to a varied 
selection of madrigals and part-songs. 



LIST OF CHORAL WORKS 

CONDUCTED OR PREPARED 

BY DR. COWARD 

Athalie. Mendelssohn 

Angels of the Bells. Foster 

The Apostles. Elgar 

The Annunciation. Mac Lean 

Alexander's Feast. Handel 

Acis and Galatea. Handel 

Alto Rhapsody. Brahms 

Blessed Damozel. Debussy 

Blessed Damozel. Bainton 

Bavarian Highlands Suite. Elgar 

Blest Pair of Sirens. Parry 

Ballad of the ' Clampherdown.' Bridge 

Banner of St. George. Elgar 

The Beatitudes. Franck 

Blessing, Glory. Bach 

Christ in the Wilderness. Bantock 

Coronation Ode, Elgar 

Creation. Haydn 

Choral Symphony. Beethoven 

Coronation Mass. Harriss 

Chandos Anthems. Handel 

Choral Fantasia. Beethoven 

The Challenge. Holloway 

97 G 



98 DR. HENRY COWARD 

Dream of Gerontius. Elgar 

Dettingen Te Deum. Handel 

Dream of Jubal. Mackenzie 

Daughter of Jairus. Stainer 

Elijah. Mendelssohn 

Everyman. Walford Davies 

Erl-King's Daughter. Gade 

Eve of Christmas. Rimsky- Korsakoff 

Festgesang. Mendelssohn 

Festival Te Deum. Sullivan 

Choral Folk-songs. Boughton 

Faust. Berlioz 

Flying Dutchman. Wagner 

Flag of England. Bridge 

Fly, Envious Time. Gatty 

Frithjof. Bruch 

Go, Song of Mine. Elgar 

Golden Legend. Sullivan 

Glory, Honour, Praise. Mozart 

Gesang der Parzen. Brahms 

God's Time is Best. Bach 

Gareth and Linet. Coward 

Hero and Leander. Lloyd 

Hero and Leander. Mancinelli. 

Hiawatha. Coleridge-Taylor 

Hymn of Praise. Mendelssohn 

Honour, Glory. Bach 

The House of Dreams. Weingartner 

Heroes of Faith, Coward 

Holy City. Gaul 

The Hours, Roeckel 

Israel in Egypt. Handel 

The Invincible Armada. Boucrhton 



LIST OF CHORAL WORKS 99 

Intimations of Immortality, Somervell 

John Gilpin. Cowen 

Judith. Parry 

Jesu, Priceless Treasure. Bach 

Judas Maccabseus. Handel 

Job. Parry 

King Neptune's Daughter. Tozer 

King Olaf. Elgar 

King Saul. Parry 

King's Error. Coward 

The Kingdom. Elgar 

Lauda Sion. Mendelssohn 

Last Post. Stanford 

Lord Ullin's Daughter. MacCunn 

Last Judgment. Spohr 

Mass in C. Mozart 

Mass in D. Beethoven 

Magnificat. Bach 

Mass in B minor. Bach 

Messiah. Handel 

Martyr of Antioch. Sullivan 

May Queen. Bennett 

Midsummer Night's Dream. Mendelssohn 

Meg Blane. Coleridge-Taylor 

May Day. Macfarren 

Magna Charta. Coward 

Mount of Olives. Beethoven 

North-East Wind. Cliffe 

North-East Wind. A. M. Smith 

Nanie. Brahms 

Ode to Music. Parry 

Ode on St. Cecilia's Day. Handel 

Ode on St. Cecilia's Day. Van Bree 



lOO DR. HENRY COWARD 

Ode on St. Cecilia's Day. Parry 

Orpheus. Gluck 

Omar Khayyam. Bantock 

Ode to the Passions. Cowen 

Phaudrig Crohoore, Stanford 

Psalm 115. Mendelssohn 

Psalm 42. „ 

Psalm 114. „ 

Psalm 95. „ 

Psalm 43. „ 

Pan. Harriss 

Praise Thou the Lord. Bach 

Paradise and the Peri. Schumann 

Psyche. Gade 

Passion. Haydn 

Pied Piper. Parry 

Power of Sound. Somervell 

Ruth. Gaul 

Rock of Ages. J. F. Bridge 

Rose Maiden. Cowen 

Rose of Life. Cowen 

Requiem. Mozart 

Requiem. Brahms 

The Revenge. Stanford 

Return of Tobias. Haydn 

Requiem. Verdi 

Spectre's Bride. Dvorak 

Spring's Message. Gade 

Saint Mary Magdalene. Stainer 

Sing Ye to the Lord. Bach 

St. Matthew Passion. Bach 

Sleepers Wake. Bach 

Sands of Dee. Harriss 



LIST OF CHORAL WORKS loi 

Stabat Mater. Rossini 

Stabat Mater. Dvorak 

Sea Drift. Delius 

St. Paul. Mendelssohn 

Song of Destiny. Brahms 

Swan and Skylark. A. Goring Thomas 

Seasons. Haydn 

Song of Darkness and Light. Parry 

Samson. Handel 

Sun God's Return. Mackenzie 

Story of Bethany. Coward 

Samson and Delilah. Saint-Saens 

Song of the Storm. Weingartner 

Tannhauser. Wagner 

Te Deum. Dvorak 

Te Deum. Berlioz 

Taillefer. Strauss 

Triumphlied. Brahms 

Tubal Cain. Coward 

Twelfth Mass. Mozart 

Wanderer's Song of the Storm. Strauss 



BOOKS ABOUT 

MUSIC 

PUBLISHED BY JOHN LANE 

THE BODLEY HEAD, LONDON, W. 

LIVING MASTERS OF MUSIC 

An Illustrated Series of Monographs dealing with Contemporary 

Musical life, and including Representatives of all Branches of 

the Art. 

Edited by ROSA NEWMARCH. 

Crown Svo. Cloth. Price 2s, 6d. net. Postage 3d. extra. 

Volumes Already Published 
Henry J. Wood. By Rosa Newmarch. 
Sir Edward Elgar. By R< J. Buckley. 
Joseph Joachim. By J. A. Fuller Maitland. 
Edward A. Macdowell. By Lawrence Oilman. 
Theodor Leschetizky, By Annette Hullah. 
GiAcoMo Puccini. By Wakeling Dry. 
Alfred Bruneau. By Arthur Hervey. 
Ignaz Paderewski. By E. A. Baughan. 
Claude Debussy, By Mrs. Franz Liebich. 
Richard Strauss. By Ernest Newman. 

THE MUSIC OF THE MASTERS 

Edited by WAKELING DRY. 

Foolscap Svo. With Portrait. 2s. 6d. net each vol. 

Postage 3d. extra, 

BRAHMS. By H. C. Colles. 

BACH. By Rutland Boughton. 

WAGNER. By Ernest Newman. 

TCHAIKOVSKI. By E. Markham Lee, M.A., Mus. Doc. 

BEETHOVEN. By Ernest Walker, M.A., D.Mus.Oxon. 

ELGAR. By Ernest Newman. 



THE LIFE OF PETER 
ILICH TCHAIKOVSKY 

(1840-1893) BY HIS BROTHER, MODESTE TCHAIKOVSKY, 
EDITED AND ABRIDGED FROM THE RUSSIAN AND 
GERMAN EDITIONS BY ROSA NEWMARCH, WITH 
NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND FACSIMILES AND 
AN INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITOR. Demy 8vo. Price 
78. 6d. net. Postage 6d. extra. 

CESAR FRANCK: A STUDY 

Translated from the French of Vincent d'Indy. With an Introduction 
by ROSA NEWMARCH. Demy 8vo (9 x 5I inches). 7s.6d.net. 
Postage 5d. extra. 

THE SINGING OF 
THE FUTURE 

By D. FFRANGCON-DAVIES. With an Introduction by Sir 
EDWARD ELGAR, and a Photogravure Portrait of the Author. 
Demy 8vo. 7s. 6(1. net. Second Edition. Postage 5d. extra. 

EDWARD A. MACDOWELL 

A BIOGRAPHY. By LAWRENCE OILMAN. Author of 
"Phases of Modern Music," "Strauss' 'Salome,'" "The Music of 
To-morrow and Other Studies," " Edward Macdowell," etc. Profusely 
Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 5s. net. Postage 4d. extra. 

STRAUSS' "SALOME" 

By LAWRENCE OILMAN. With Musical Illustrations, Small 8vo. 
38. 6d. net. Postage 4d, extra. 

MUSICAL STUDIES : Essays 

By ERNEST NEWMAN. Crown 8vo. 5s. net. Postage 4d, extra. 

GRIEG AND HIS MUSIC 

By H. T. FINCK. Author of" Wagner and his Works," etc. With 
Illustrations. Demy Svo. 7s. 6d. net. Postage jd. extra. 

JOHN LANE The Bodley Head, Vigo St., London W. 



Mifl 





THE WORKS OF 
ANATOLE FRANCE 

T has long been a reproach to 
England that only one volume 
by ANATOLE FRANCE 
has been adequately rendered 
into English ; yet outside this 
country he shares with 
TOLSTOI the distinction 
of being the greatest and most daring 
student of humanity living. 

H There have been many difficulties to 
encounter in completing arrangements for a 
uniform edition, though perhaps the chief bar- 
rier to publication here has been the fact that 
his writings are not for babes — but for men 
and the mothers of men. Indeed, some of his 
Eastern romances are written with biblical can- 
dour. " I have sought truth strenuously," he 
tells us, " I have met her boldly. I have never 
turned from her even when she wore an 



THE WORKS OF ANATOLE FRANCE 

unexpected aspect." Still, it is believed that the day has 
come for giving English versions of all his imaginative 
works, as well as of his monumental study JOAN OF 
ARC, which is undoubtedly the most discussed book in the 
world of letters to-day. 

f MR. JOHN LANE has pleasure in announcing that 
the following volumes are either already published or are 
passing through the press. 

THE RED LILY 

MOTHER OF PEARL 

THE GARDEN OF EPICURUS 

THE CRIME OF SYLVESTRE BONNARD 

BALTHASAR 

THE WELL OF ST. CLARE 

THAIS 

THE WHITE STONE 

PENGUIN ISLAND 

THE MERRIE TALES OF JACQUES TOURNE- 

BROCHE 
JOCASTA AND THE FAMISHED CAT ' 
THE ELM TREE ON THE MALL 
THE WICKER-WORK WOMAN 
AT THE SIGN OF THE QUEEN PEDAUQUE 
THE OPINIONS OF JEROME COIGNARD 
MY FRIEND'S BOOK 
THE ASPIRATIONS OF JEAN SERVIEN 
JOAN OF ARC (2 vols.) 

^ All the books will be published at 6/- each with the 
exception of JOAN OF ARC, which will be 25/- net 
the two volumes, with eight Illustrations. 

H The format of the volumes leaves little to be desired. 
The size is Demy 8vo (9 x 5|), and they are printed from 
Caslon type upon a paper light in weight and strong of 
texture, with a cover design in crimson and gold, a gilt top, 
end-papers from designs by Aubrey Beardsley and initials by 
Henry Ospovat. In short, these are volumes for the biblio- 
phile as well as the lover of fiction, and form perhaps the 
cheapest library edition of copyright novels ever published, 
for the price is only that of an ordinary novel. 

If The translation of these books has been entrusted to 
such competent French scholars as MR. Alfred allinson, 

MR. FREDERIC CHAPMAN. MR. ROBERT B. DOUGLAS, 



THE WORKS OF ANATOLE FRANCE 

MR. A. W. EVANS, MRS. FARLEY, MR. LAFCADIO HEARN, 
MRS. W. S. JACKSON, MRS. JOHN LANE, MRS. NEWMARCH, 
MR. C. E. ROCHE, MISS WINIFRED STEPHENS, and MISS 
M. P. WILLCOCKS. 

II As Anatole Thibault, dit Anatole France, is to most 
English readers merely a name, it will be well to state that 
he was born in 1844 in the picturesque and inspiring 
surroundings of an old bookshop on the Quai Voltaire, 
Paris, kept by his father. Monsieur Thibault, an authority on 
eighteenth-century history, from whom the boy caught the 
passion for the principles of the Revolution, while from his 
mother he was learning to love the ascetic ideals chronicled 
in the Lives of the Saints. He was schooled with the lovers 
of old books, missals and manuscripts ; he matriculated on the 
Quais with the old Jewish dealers of curios and objeti ePart ; 
he graduated in the great university of life and experience. 
It will be recognised that all his work is permeated by his 
youthful impressions ; he is, in fact, a virtuoso at large. 

% He has written about thirty volumes of fiction. His 
first novel was JOCASTA y THE FAMISHED CAT 
(1879). THE CRIME OF SYLVESTRE BONNARD 
appeared in 1881, and had the distinction of being crowned 
by the French Academy, into which he was received in 1896. 

% His work is illuminated with style, scholarship, and 
psychology ; but its outstanding features are the lambent wit, 
the gay mockery,the genial irony with which he touches every 
subject he treats. But the wit is never malicious, the mockery 
never derisive, the irony never barbed. To quote from his own 
GARDEN OF EPICURUS : " Irony and Pity are both of 
good counsel ; the first with her smiles makes life agreeable, 
the other sanctifies it to us with her tears. The Irony I 
invoke is no cruel deity. She mocks neither love nor 
beauty. She is gentle and kindly disposed. Her mirth 
disarms anger and it is she teaches us to laugh at rogues and 
fools whom but for her we might be so weak as to hate." 

^ Often he shows how divine humanity triumphs over 
mere asceticism, and with entire reverence ; indeed, he 
might be described as an ascetic overflowing with humanity, 
just as he has been termed a " pagan, but a pagan 
constantly haunted by the pre-occupation of Christ.'* 
He is in turn — like his own Choulette in THE RED 
LILY — saintly and Rabelaisian, yet without incongruity. 



THE WORKS OF ANATOLE FRANCE 

At all times he is the unrelenting foe of superstition and 
hypocrisy. Of himself he once modestly said : " You will find 
in my writings perfect sincerity (lying demands a talent I do 
not possess), much indulgence, and some natural affection for 
the beautiful and good." 

H The mere extent of an author's popularity is perhaps a 
poor argument, yet it is significant that two books by this 
author are in their HUNDRED AND TENTH THOU- 
SAND, and numbersof them well intotheir SEVENTIETH 
THOUSAND, whilst the one which a Frenchman recently 
described as " Monsieur France's most arid book" is in its 
FIFTY-EIGHTH THOUSAND. 

f Inasmuch as M. FRANCE'S ONLY contribution to 
an English periodical appeared in THE YELLOW BOOK, 
vol. v., April 1895, together with the first important English 
appreciation of his work from the pen of the Hon. Maurice 
Baring, it is peculiarly appropriate that the English edition 
of his works should be issued from the Bodley Head. 

ORDER FORM 

190 

To Mr 

BookielUr 

Please send me the folhw'ing works »J Anatole France : 

THE RED LILY 
MOTHER OF PEARL 
THE GARDEN OF EPICURUS 
THE CRIME OF SYLVESTRE BONNARD 
BALTHASAR 

THE WELL OF ST CLARE 
THAIS 

THE WHITE STONE 
PENGUIN ISLAND 

THE MERRIE TALES OF JACQUES TOURNE- 
BROCHE 

/or which I enclose 

Name _ 

JOHN LANK.Publisher.The Buuley I1ead,VigoSt. Lomuon.W. 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BT ARTHUR H. ADAMS. 

GALAHAD JONES. A Tragic Farce. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

With i6 full-page Illustrations by Norman Lindsay. 

%* Galahad Jones is a middle-aged bank clerk, with a family. One day, on 
his way home, a letter falls to his feet from the balcony of a house he is passing. 
It is addressed "To You," and on reading it he discovers that he is requested 
to meet the writer in the garden of the house at lo o'clock that night. In a spirit 
of knight-errantry, he decides to do so, and learns that the writer— a young girl — 
is kept practically in prison by her father, because of her affection for a man of 
whom he does not approve. The chivalry of Galahad Jones plunges him into 
many difficulties, ana leads to some very awkward and extremely amusing 
situations. 

BY FRANCIS ADAMS. 

A CHILD OF THE AGE. Crown 8vo. i/- 

Pall Mall Gazette — " It comes recognisably near to great excellence. There is 
a love episode in this book which is certainly fine. Clearly conceived and 
expressed with point. 

BY JEAN AICARD. 

THE DIVERTING ADVENTURES OF MAURIN. Cr. 8vo. 6/- 

Translated from the French by Alfred AUinson, M.A. 

VVestintnster Gazette — Maurin, hunter, poacher, boaster, and lover of women, 
is a magnificently drawn type of the Meridional, who is in some ways the Irishman 
of France. ... a fine, sane, work. . . . The translation is excellent." 

Morning Leader—^* Indubitably laughable. An encyclopaedia of the best 
form of foolishness." 

MAURIN THE ILLUSTRIOUS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Translated from the French by Alfred Allinson, M.A. 
Evening Standard — "If he had never dona anything else M. Aicard would 
have earnea his seat in the French Academy by his creation of Maurin. For 
Maurin is an addition to the world's stock of fictional characters — to that picture 
gallery where no restojer is ever wanted." 

BY GRANT ALLEN. 

THE BRITISH BARBARIANS. Crown 8vo. 3/6 

AI.S0 Canvas Back 1/6 
Saturday Review — " Mr. Allen takes occasion to say a good many things that 
require saying, and suggests a good many reforms that would, if adopted, bring 
our present legal code more into harmony with modern humanity and the 
exigencies of its developmant." 

BY MAUDE ANNESLEY. 

THE WINE OF LIFE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Pall Mall Gasetle—" The story is full of life and interest and the startling 
denouement is led up to with considerable skill." 

THE DOOR OF DARKNESS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Pall Mall Gazette — "An enthralling story, powerfully imagined and distin- 
guished for artistry of no mean order." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
ANONYMOUS. 

ELIZABETHS CHILDREN. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Ttlegraph— The book is charming . . . the author . . . has a delicate 
ianciful touch, a charming imagination . . . skilfnlly sngg-ests character and 
moods ... is bright and witty, and writes about children with exquisite know- 
ledge and sympathy." 

HEI-EN ALLISTON. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

By the author of *' Elizabeth's Children." 
Pall Mall Gaaelte — " The book has vivacity, fluency, colour, more than a touch 
of poetry and passion. . . . We shall look forward with interest to future work 
by the author of ' Helen Alliston.' " 

THE YOUNG O'BRIENS. 

By the author of " Elizabeth's Children," and " Helen Alliston." 
Saturday Review—^'- Delightful . . . the author treats them (the Young 
O'Briens) very skilfully." 

THE MS. IN A RED BOX. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Speaker — •' It is that rarest and most welcome of works, a good romance of 
pure fiction. . . . The use made of local colour and historical incident is one of 
the author's unknown triumphs. ... In these respects ... it is the best novel 
that has appeared since ' Lorna Doone.' One of the most exciting books of its 
own kind that we have ever read." 

BY W. M. ARDAGH. 

THE MAGADA. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Pall Mall Gaselle — " 'The Magada' is a store-house of rare and curious learn- 
ing ... it is a well-written and picturesque story of high adventure and deeds 
of derring-do." 

Observer — "The book has admirably caught the spirit of romance." 
Daily Chronicle — "'The Magada' is a fine and finely told storj-, and we 
congratulate Mr. Ardagh." 

BY GERTRUDE ATHEPTON. 

SENATOR NORTH . Crown Svo. 6/- 

New York Herald—^'' In the description of Washington life Mrs. Atherton. 
shows not only a very considerable knowledge of externals, but also an insight 
into the underlying political issues that is remarkable." 

Outlook — "The novel has genuine historical value." 

THE ARISTOCRATS. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Also in paper boards, cloth back, at i/6. 

The /"iw^s — " Clever and entertaining. . . . This gay volume is written by 
some one with a pretty wit, an eye for scenery, and a mind quick to grasp natural 
as well as individual characteristics. Her investigations into the American 
character are acute as well as amusing." 

THE DOOMSWOMAN . Crown Svo. 6/- 

Mornittg Post— " A fine drama, finely conceived and finely executed. 
^/Aewaum— "Eminently picturesque . . . gorgeous colouring." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 

BY GERTRUDE ATEERTOYf-contiuued. 
A WHIRL ASUNDER . Paper Cover. i/- 

Bystander — " It can be recommended as a fine romcnce. . . . There is plenty 
of incident." 

Outlook — "The story is a curious achievement in the violently and crudely 
picturesque style that is peculiar to the author writer." 

BY ARNOLD BENNETT. 

A MAN FROM THE NORTH. Crown 8vo. 3/6 

Black and lV/it(e — "A work that will come to the jaded novel reader as a 
splendid surprise." 

Daily Chronicle — " Admirably fresh and brisk, vibrating with a wild, young 
ecstasy. 

BY EX-LIEUTENANT BILSE. 

LIFE IN A GARRISON TOWN. Crown 8vo. 1/- 

The suppressed German Novel. With a preface written by the 
author whilst in London, and an introduction by Arnold White. 

Truth — "The disgraceful exposures of the book were expressly admitted to 
be true by the Minister of War in the Reichstag. What the book will probably 
suggest to you is. that German militarism is cutting its own throat, and will one 
day be hoist with its own petard." 

BY SHELLAND BRADLEY. 

EXPERIENCES OF AN A.D.C . Crown 8vo. 6/- 

IVcslminslcr Gdzcltc — " . . . makes better and more entertaining reading 
than nine out of every ten novels of the d ay. . . . Those who know nothing about 
Anglo-Indian social life will be as well entertained by this story as those who 
know everything about it." 

Times — " Full of delightful humour." 

BY JOHN BUCHAN. 

JOHN BURNET OF BARNS. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Tni/h—" In short, this is a novel to lay aside and read a second time, nor 
should we forget the spirited snatches of song which show that the winner of the 
Newdigate has the soul of the poet." 

A LOST LADY OF OLD YEARS. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Atlu>iceu»i — " Written in strong and scliolarly fashion." 
Morning Post — " We have nothing but praise for Mr. Buchan. The book 
of sterling merit and sustained interest." 

Evening Standard — "Stirring and well told." 

BY GILBERT K- CHESTERTON. 

THE NAPOLEON OF NOTTING HILL. Crown Svo. 6/- 

With 6 Illustrations by W. Graham Robertson. 

Daily Afnit—" Mr. Cliesterton, as our laughing philosopher, is at his best in 
this deh'glitlul fantasy. ' 

ll'cstininsttr Gr;ct7/t- " It is undeniably clever. It scintillates that is exactly 
the right woril — with bright and epigraiiiiiiatic observations, and it is written 
throughout with undoubted literary .skill." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BY T. B. CLEGG 

THE LOVE CHILD . Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Truth — " A singularly powerful book. . . . The painful story grips you from 
first to last." 

Daily TeUgraf>h — "A strong and interesting story, the fruit of careful 
thought and conscientious workmanship. . . . Mr. Clegg has presented intensely 
dramatic situations without letting them degenerate into the melodramatic." 

THE WILDERNESS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Telegraph — " A really admirable story." 

A tfienaeuM— "Mr. Clegg claims the gift of powerful and truthful writing.'" 

THE BISHOPS SCAPEGOAT. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Athenaum — " Inspired with a deep sense of the beautiful in Nature and the 
instinctive goodness of the human heart, and the divine meaning of life." 

Daily Mail — " A really good novel. It is so good that we hope Mr. Clegg 
will give us some more from the same store." 

JOAN OF THE HILLS. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Times — "Another of Mr. Clegg's admirable novels of Australian life." 
Globe — "A good story, interesting all through." 

BY FREDERICK BARON CORYO. 

IN HIS OWN IMAGE. Crown Svo. 6/- 

IVestminsler Gazette — "The book is cleverly written and the author has 
obviously a very pretty literary talent." 

Pall Mall Gaae//*—" Always delightful and well worth reading." 

BY YIGTORIA CROSS. 

THE W^OMAN WHO DIDN'T. Crown Svo. i/- 

Speaker — " The feminine gift of intuition seems to be developed with uncanny 
strength, and what she sees sne has the power of flashing upon her readers with 
wonderful vividness and felicity of phrase. ... A strong and subtle study of 
feminine nature, biting irony, restrained passion, and a style that is both forcible 
and polished." 

BY A. J. DAWSON. 



MIDDLE GREYNESS. (Canvas-back Library). i/6 

Daily Telegraph— '' The novel has distinct ability. The descriptions of up- 
country manners are admirable." 

MERE SENTIMENT Crown Svo. 3/6 

Pall Mall Gazette— ''There is some clever writing in Mr. Dawson's short 
stories collected to form a new ' Keynotes ' volume under the title of Mere Senti- 
ment.' . . . Avery clever piece of work. . . . Mr. Dawson has a pretty style 
. . . shows dramatic instinct." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BY GEORGE EGERTON. 

KEYNOTES. Crown 8vo. 3/6 net. Ninth Edition. 

St. James's Gazette— " This is a collection of eight of the prettiest short 
stories that have appeared for many a day. They turn for the most part on 
feminine traits of character ; in fact, the book is a little psychological study of 
woman under various circumstances. The characters are so admirably drawn, 
and the scenes and landscapes are described with so much and so rare vividness, 
that we cannot help being almost spell-bound by their perusal." 

DISCORDS. Crown 8vo. 3/6 net. Sixth Edition. 

Daily Telegraph— ''These masterly word-sketches." 

Speaker—" The book is true to human nature, for the author has genius, and 
let us add. has heart. It is representative ; it is, in the hackneyed phrase, 
a human document." 

SYMPHONIES. Crown 8vo. 6/- net. Second Edition. 

St. James's Gasttte— "There is plenty of pathos and no little power in the 
volume before us." 

Daily News—" The impressionistic descriptive passages and the human 
touches that abound in the book lay hold of the imagination and linger in the 
memory of the reader." 

FANTASIAS. Crown 8vo. 3/6 net. Canvas back, 1/6 net. 

Daily ChronicU — "These ' Fantasias ' are pleasant reading— typical scenes or 
tales upon the poetry and prose of life, prostitution, and the beauty of dreams 
and truth." 

BY A. C. FOX DAYIES. 

THE DANGERVILLE INHERITANCE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Second Edition. 

Morning Post—" Mr. Fox-Davies has written a detective story of which 
Gaboriau might have been proud." 

Daily Telegraph—" The story is one that, once begun, must be finished." 

THE MAULEVERER MURDERS. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Also i/- net. 

EvotiHg Standard— " An entertaining blend of the Society novel and the 
detective story." 

IP'estrninster Gazette — "We heartily recommend this book for a holiday or a 
railway journey. An exciting and ingenious tale." 

THE FINANCES OF SIR JOHN KYNNERSLEY. 

Crown Svo. 6/- 

Punch — " I read every word of the book, and enjoyed nearly all of them." 
Morning Post — " Mr. Fox-Davies' extremely clever and entertaining book." 

BY HAROLD FREDERIC. 

MARCH HARES. Crown Svo. 3/6. Third Edition. 

Daily Chronicle — " Buoyant, fanciful, stimulating, a pure creation of fancy 
and high spirits. ' March Hares ' has a joyous impetus which carries everything 
before it ; and it enriches a class of fiction which unfortunately is not copious." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 

BY HAROLD FREDERIC— co«/;;»z<crf. 
MRS. ALBERT GRUNDY. Observations in Philistia. 

F'Cap. 8vo. 3/6. Second Edition. 

Pall Mall Gaaette — " Mr. Frederic is at his very best in this light and delicate 
satire, which is spread with laughter and good humour." 

BY RICHARD GARNETT. 

THE TWILIGHT OF THE GODS AND OTHER STORIES 

Crown 8vo. 6/- Second Edition. 

Daily Chronicle — " A subtle compound of philosophy and irony. Let the 
reader take these stories as pure fun— lively incident and droll character— and he 
will be agreeably surprised to find how stimulating they are." 

Times — " Here is learning in plenty, drawn from all ages and most languages, 
but of dryness or dulness not a sentence. The book bubbles with laughter. . . . 
His sense of humour has a wide range." 

BY ELIZABETH GODFREY. 

THE WINDING ROAD . Grown 8vo. 6/- 

Literary World — " A carefully written story. . . . Miss Godfrey has the mind 
of a poet ; her pages breathe of the beautiful in nature without giving long 
description, while the single-hearted love between Jasper and Phenice is des- 
cribed with power and charm." 

THE BRIDAL OF ANSTACE . Crown Bvo. 6/- 

Westminster Gasette — "An individual charm and a sympathetic application 
have gone to the conception of Miss Godfrey's book, a remarkable power of 
characterisation to its making, and a refined literary taste to its composition." 

Truth — " Charmingly told. ... A story in which your interest gains and 
deepens from the beginning." 

THE CRADLE OF A POET. Crown Bvo. 6/- 

*,* The poet is a product of the stone quarry region of Dorsetshire, and the 
story concerns itself with his development and a conflict between ancient tradition 
and modem spirit. 

BY A. R. GORING THOMAS. 

MRS. GRAMERCY PARK. Crown Bvo. 6/- 

World—" In the language of the heroine herself this, her story, is delight- 
fully 'bright and cute.' " 

Observer — " Fresh and amusing." 

BY HANDASYDE. 

FOR THE WEEK-END. Crown Bvo. 6/- 

Standard — " Only a woman, surely, would write such deep and intimate 
truth about the heart of another woman and the things that give ner joy when a 
man loves her." 

A GIRL S LIFE IN A HUNTING COUNTRY. Crown Bvo. 3/6 

Daily News — "A sweet and true representation of a girl's romance." 
Scotsman — " There are some admirable character sketches in the book and a 

lot of quaint philosophy, whimsical thoughts and quoted verse, all of which 

should greatly entertain the reader." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BY HENRT HARLAND. 

THE CARDINAL'S SNUFF BOX. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Illustrated by G. C. Wilmhurst. 165th. Thousand. 

Academy— "The drawings are all excellent iu style and really illustrative ot 
the tale." 

Saturday Revieiv — ''Wholly delightful." 
Pall Malt Gaeeite — " Dainty and delicious." 
Times — "A book among a thousand." 
Spectator — "A charming romance." 

MY FRIEND PROSPERO . Crown 8vo. 6/- Third Edition. 

Times — " There is no denying the charm of the work, the delicacy and 
fragrancy of the style, the sunny play of the dialogue, the vivacity of the wit, and 
the graceful flight of the fancy.'' 

tVorld — " The reading of it is a pleasure rare and unalloyed." 

THE LADY PARAMOUNT. Crown 8vo. 6/- 55th Thousand. 

Times — "A fantastic, delightful love-idyll." 

Spectator — "A roseate romance without a crumpled rose leaf." 

Daily Mail — "Charming, dainty, delightful." 

COMEDIES AND ERRORS. Crown Svo. 6/- Third Edition. 

Mr. Henry Jamks, \n Fortnightly Review — "Mr. Harland has clearly thought 
out a form. . . . He has mastered a method and learned how to paint. . .. His 
art is all alive with felicities and delicacies." 

GREY ROSES. Crown Svo. 3/6 Fourth Edition. 

Daily Telegraph — " ' Grey Roses ' " are entitled to rank among the choicest 
flowers of the realms of romance." 

Spectator—" Really delightful. 'Castles near Spain ' is as near perfection as 
it could well be." 

Daily Chronicle — " Charming stories, simple, full of freshness." 

MADEMOISELLE MISS . Crown Svo. 3/6 Third Edition. 

Speaker — "All through the book we are pleased and entertained." 
Booitman — "An interesting collection ot early work. In it may be noted the 
undoubted delicacy and strength of Mr. Harland's manner." 

BY ALICE HERBERT. 

THE MEASURE OF OUR YOUTH. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Evening Standard — " A very human, intelligible book. . . . exceedingly 
clever and earnestly real." 

Morning Post — " Reveals an unusual clearness of vision and distinction of 
style and thought." 

BY MURIEL HINE. 

HALF IN EARNEST. Crown Svo. 6/- 

*»* Derrick Kilmarney, the secretary of a famous politician, is a young man 
with the disposition to take the best that life offers him, and skirk the respon- 
sibilities. He falls in love with a girl but shudders at the idea of the bondage of 
marriage. His love is emancipated, unfettered. He is ambitious, politically, 
allowsTiimself to become entangled with his chiefs wife, and is too indolent to 
break with her even in justice to the girl he loves. Eventually there comes a 
time when all the threads have to be gathered together, when love has to be 
weighed with ambition, and in Kilmarney's case the denouement is unexpected 
and startling. 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BT ARNOLD HOLCOMBE. 

THE ODD MAN. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Aloming Post — " One of the most refreshing and amusing books that we have 
read for some months. ... ' The Odd Man ' is a book to put on one's shelves 
and Mr. Holcombe's is a name to remember." 

Times — "A clever and competent piece of work." 

Pall Mall Gazette— "Th^ brightness, spontaneity, and constant flow of its 
humour make ' The Odd Man ' a feast of fun." 

BT WILFRID SCARBOROUGH JACKSON. 

NINE POINTS OF THE LAW. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Manchester Guardian — "The kindly humorous philosophy of this most divert- 
ing story is as remarkable as its attractive style. There is hardly a page without 
something quotable, some neat bit of phrasing or apt wording of a truth." 

HELEN OF TROY. N.Y. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Chronicle— "The story is at once original, impossible, artificial, and 
very amusing. Go, get the wferk and read." 

Evening Standard—" There is a rollicking yet plausible tone that carries the 
reader along." 

TRIAL BY MARRIAGE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Globe — "Written with all Mr. Jackson's simple, unafiTected charm." 

IVorld " One can confidently promise the reader of this skilfully treated and 
unconventional novel that he will not find a page of it dull. It is one that will be 
not only read but remembered." 

BY MRS. JOHN LANE. 

KITWYK. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

A Story with numerous illustrations by Howard Pyle, 
Albert Sterner and George Wharton Edwards. 

Times — " Mrs. Lane has succeeded to admiration, and chiefly by reason of 
being so much interested in her theme that she makes no conscious effort to 
please. . . . Everyone who seeks to be diverted will read ' Kitwyk ' for its 
obvious qualities of entertainment." 

THE CHAMPAGNE STANDARD. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Morning Post — " The author's champagne overflows with witty sayings too 
numerous to cite." 

Pall Mall Gazette — " Mrs. Lane's papers on our social manners and foibles are 
the most entertaining, the kindest and the truest that have been offered us for a 
long time. . . . The book shows an airy philosophy that will render it of service 
to the social student." 

Athenaunt — " Mrs. Lane treats each subject with such freshness and origi- 
nality that the work is as entertaining as it is suggestive." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 

BY MRS. JOHN LkSE—coutinucd. 
ACCORDING TO MARIA. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Telegraph — "A more entertaining, companionable, good-natured, and 
yet critical pie'ce of portraiture we have not had the good luck to encounter these 
many seasons. . . . 'According to Maria' is as fresh, amusing, and human a 
book as any man, woman, or girlcould desire to bewitch a jaded moment, or drive 
away a fit of the dumps."' 

Observer — " The world ' according to Maria ' is a most diverting place. She 
is a delight, and must be secured at once for every home." 

Daily Chronicle — "This delightful novel, sparkling with humour. . . . Maria's 
world is real. . . . Mrs. Lane is remarkably true to life in that world. . . . Maria 
is priceless, and Mrs. Lane is a satirist whose life may be indefatigably joyous in 
satiric art. For her eyes harvest the little absurdities, and her hand makes 
sheaves of them. . . . Thackeray might have made such sheaves if he had been 
a woman." 

BALTHASAR AND OTHER STORIES . Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Translated by Mrs. John Lane from the French of Anatole France 

Daily Graphic — "The original charm and distinction of the author's style has 
survived the difficult ordeal ol appearing in another language. . . . 'The Cure's 
Mignonette" is as perfect in itself as some little delicate flower." 

Globe — "Every one of them is interesting." 

BY RICHARD LE 6ALLIENNE. 

THE BOOK BILLS OF NARCISSUS. Crown 8vo. 3/6 

Second Edition. 

Daily Chronicle — " One of the most winsome volumes — winsome is surely the 
one epitnet — which have so far been given to us during the last decade of a dying 
century." 

C. di B. (Mr. Berntird Shaw) in the Star — " I fan unusually fine literary instinct 
could make it a solid book, Mr. le Gallienne would be at no loss for an enduring 
reputation . . . Nothing could be prettier than his pleas and persuasions on 
benalf of Narcissus and George Muncaster." 

THE WORSHIPPER OF THE IMAGE. Crown Svo. 3/6 

Daily Chronicle — " Contains passages of a poignancy which Mr. Le Gallienne 
has never before compassed." 

THE QUEST OF THE GOLDEN GIRL. Cr. Svo. 6/- 

Fifteenth Edition. 

Daily I^eivs — " A piece of literary art which compels our admiration." 
Mr. Max Beerbohm \n Daily Mail — "Mr. Le Gallienne's gentle, high spirits, 
and his sj-mpathy with existence is exhibited here. . . . His poetry, like his 
humour, suffuses the whole book and gives a charm to the most prosaic objects 
and incidents of life. . . . The whole Dook is delightful, for this reason, that no 
one else could have written a book of the same kind." 

THE ROMANCE OF ZION CHAPEL. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Second Edition. 

St. James's Gazettt — " Mr. Le Gallienne's masterpiece." 

Times — " Extremely clever and pathetic. As for sentiment Dickens might 
have been justly proud of poor Jenny s lingering death, and readers whose hearts 
have the mastery over their heads will certainly weep over it." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 

BY RICHARD LE GALLlEJiliE-continucd. 

PAINTED SHADOWS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Scotsman — " Material and workmanship are of the finest." 
Quttn — " Really delightful stories, Mr. Le Gallienne writes prose like a poet." 

LITTLE DINNERS WITH THE SPHINX. Cr. 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Telegraph — " Here is th^ same delicate phrasing, the same tender revela- 
tion of emotions, always presented with a daintiness of colouring that reveals the 
true literary artist." 

Star — " Mr. Le Gallienne touches with exquisite tenderness on the tragedy of 
things that change and pass and fade." 

BY A. E. J. LEGGE. 

MUTINEERS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Speakcr — "An interesting story related with admirable lucidity and remark- 
able grasp of character. Mr. Legge writes with polish and grace." 

Literary World— '^ A novel sure to win applause. . . . 'Mutineers' can 
safely be recommended as a novel well constructed and well written. It gave us 
two pleasant hours." 

BOTH GREAT AND SMALL. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Sattirday Review — "We read on and on with increasing pleasure." 

Times— '^ The style of this book is terse and witty." 

Spectator — " Full of quiet and clever observation and written with a good deal 
of descriptive talent." 

THE FORD. Crown 8vo. 6/- Second Edition. 

Standard — "An impressive work . . . clever and thoughtful. 'The Ford,' 
deserves to be largely read." 

Mr. James Douglas, in Star — " It is full of finely phrased wit and costly satire. 
It is modern in its hanciling, and it is admirably written." 

BY W. J. LOCKE. 

DERELICTS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Chronicle — " Mr. Locke tells his story in a very true, very moving, and 
very noble book. If anyone can read the last chapter with dry eyes we shall be 
surprised. ' Derelicts' is an impressive and important book." 

iforni)tg Post — Mr. Locke's clever noveL One of the most effective stories 
that have appeared for some time past." 

IDOLS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Telegraph — " A brilliantly written and eminently readable book." 

Daily Mail — One of the most distinguished novels of the present book season." 

Punch — " Tlie Baron strongly recommends Mr. W. J. Locke's 'Idols' to all 
Hovel readers. It is well written. No time is wasted in superfluous descriptions ; 
there is no fine writing for fine writings sake, but the story will absorb the 
reauer. ... It is a novel that, once taken up, cannot willingly be put down 
until finished." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 

BY W. J. LOCKE— continued. 
A STUDY IN SHADOWS. Crown 8vo. 3/6 

Daily Chronicle — " Mr. Locke has achieved a distinct success in this novel. 
He has struck many emotional chords and struck them all with a firm sure hand." 

Athenautn — "The character-drawing is distinctly good. All the personages 
Stand out well defined with strongly marked individualities." 

THE WHITE DOVE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Times—" An interesting story,, full of dramatic scenes." 

Morning Post— ^^ An interesting story. The characters are strongly con- 
ceived and vividly presented, and the dramatic moments are powerfully realized.'' 

THE USURPER. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Pfor/rf— "This quite uncommon novel." 

Spectator — " Character and plot are most ingeniously wrought, and the con- 
clusion, when it comes, is fully satisfying." 
Times — "An impressive romance." 

THE DEMAGOGUE AND LADY PHAYRE . Cr. 8vo. 3/6 

AT THE GATE OF SAMARIA. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily C/jro«ic/<^— "The heroine of this clever story attracts our interest. . . . 
She is a'clever and subtle study. . . . We congratulate Mr. Locke." 

Morning Post-—" A cleverly written tale . . . the author's pictures of 
Bohemian life are bright and graphic." 

WHERE LOVE IS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Mr. James Douglas, in Star — " I do not often praise a book with this 
exultant gusto, but it gave me so much spiritual stimulus and moral pleasure that 
I feel bound to snatch the additional delight of commending it to those readers 
who long for a novel that is a piece of literature as well as a piece of life." 

Standard '" A brilliant piece of work." 

Time» — "The author has the true gilt ; his people are alive." 

THE MORALS OF MARCUS ORDEYNE . Cr. 8vo. 6/- 

Mr. C. K. Shortkr, in Sphere — "A book which has just delighted my heart." 
Truth. — " Mr. Locke's new novel is one of the most artistic pieces of work I 

have met with lor many a day." 

Daily Chronicle. — "Mr. Locke succeeds, indeed, in every crisis of this most 

original story. ' 

THE BELOVED VAGAbOND. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Truth. — " Certainly it is the most brilliant piece of work Mr. Locke has done." 
Evening Standard. — " Mr. Locke can hardly fail to write beautifully. He has 
not failed now." 

SIMON THE JESTER. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

*^* The central figure of Mr. Locke's new novel is one Simon de Gex, M. P., 
who having met life with a gay and serene philosophy is suddenly called upon to 
face Death. This he docs gallantly and jests at Death until he discovers to his 
confusion that Destiny is a grecter jester than he. Kventually by surrendering 
his claims ho attains salvation. Tlio heroine is Lola Brandt, an ex-trainer of 
animals, and an important figure in the story is a dwarf, Professor Anastasius 
Papadopoulos, wlio has a troupe of performing cats. The scene of the novel is 
laid in London and Algiers. 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BY INGRAHIM LOYELL. 

MARGARITA'S SOUL. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Punch. — "There have been a great many ingenues (mock or real) in modem 
fiction, and doubtless one or two in actual life ; but there never was one inside a 
book or out of it who came within a four-mile cab radius of Margarita. The book 
is well worth reading." 

lycstminster Gazette. — "A book which does not let the reader's interest flag 
for a moment. It is full of laughter and smiles, of seriousness, comfortable philo- 
sophy and a few tears." 

BY A. NEIL LYONS. 

ARTHURS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Times. — " Not only a very entertaining and amusing work, but a very kindly 
and tolerant work also. Incidentally the work is a mirror of a phase of the low 
London life of to-day as true as certain of Hogarth's transcripts in the eighteenth 
century, and far more tender." 

Punch. — " Mr. Neil Lyons seems to get right at the heart of things, and I con- 
fess to a real admiration for this philosopher of the coffee-stall." 

SIXPENNY PIECES. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Pail Mall Gazette.—" It is pure, fast, sheer life, salted with a sense of humour." 

Evening Standard. — "' Sixpenny Pieces ' is as good as 'Arthur's', and that 

is saying a great deal. A book full of laughter and tears and hits innumerable 

that one feels impelled to read aloud. ' Sixpenny Pieces ' would be very hard 

indeed to beat." 

BY FIONA MACLEOD (William Sharp). 

THE MOUNTAIN LOVERS. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Literary IVorld. — " We eagerly devour page after page ; we are taken captive 
by the speed and poetry of the book."' 

Graphic. — " It is as sad, as sweet, as the Hebridean skies themselves, but 
with that soothing sadnessof Nature which is so blessed a relief after a prolonged 
dose of the misery of ' mean streets.' '' 

BY ALLAN MCADLAY. 

THE EAGLE'S NEST. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Alhcnceum. — "We should describe the book as a brilliant lour de force. . . . 
The story is spirited and interesting. The love interest also is excellent and 
pathetic' 

Spectator. — "This is one of those illuminating and stimulating romances which 
set people reading history." 

BY FREDERICK NIYEN. 

THE LOST CABIN MINE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Athenaum. — " The book should be read by lovers of good fiction." 
Westminster Gazette. — "The whole story is told with an amount of spirit and 
realism that grips the reader throughout." 

THE ISLAND PROVIDENCE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Graphic. — " Its descriptive power is remarkable. The author 'springs 
imagination,' to use George Meredith's words, and springs it with no more than 
the few words prescribed by that master." 

Academy. — " Vigorous writing." 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BY FRANK NORRIS. 

THE THIRD CIRCLE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Moming Post. — "As a sketch by a great artist often reveals to the amateur 
more of his power and skill than a large finished work in which the effect is con- 
cealed, so in these virile little studies we are made to realise quite clearly what 
powers of observation and what a keen eye for effective incident Mr. Norris had." 

Spectator. — "A series of remarkable sketches and short stories by the late 
Mr. Frank Norris . . . well worth reading." 

BY F. J. RANDALL. 

LOVE AND THE IRONMONGER. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Telegraph.—^' Since the paydays when Mr. F. Anstey was writing his 
inimitable series of humourous novels, we can recall no book of purely farcical 
imagination, so full of excellent entertainment as this first effort of Mr. F. J. 
Randall. ' Love and the Ironmonger' is certain to be a success." 

Times—" As diverting a comedy of errors as the reader is likely to meet with 
for a considerable time." 

Mr. Clement Shorter in The Sphere — " I thank the author for a delightful 
hour's amusement." 

BY STEPHEN REYNOLDS. 

A POOR MANS HOUSE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Mail — " This is a remarkable book, and we hope it will receive the 
attention it deserves." 

Athenceutn—" A remarkably vivid and sympathetic picture. It is an achieve- 
ment of conspicuous merit." 

THE HOLY MOUNTAIN. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Punch — " . . . deserves nothing but praise ... a clever story well told, and 
an endlessly amusing caricature of the petty side of life." 
Westyniyislcr Gazette — "Vivid and brilliant." 
Standard — " Here at last is an honest strong piece of work." 

ALONGSHORE. WHERE MAN AND SEA ARE FACE TO FACE 

Crown Svo. 6/- 

BY HENRY ROWLAND. 

GERMAINE. Crown Svo. 6/- 

Athenceiim — "A conspicuously uncommon story." 

Daily Chronicle — "A well written story of distinctly original flavour." 
Outlook—" We have in ' Germaine' a really vital and original book— passion- 
ate yet pure, full of the deep things of life, yet abrim with whimsical humour.' 

BY HUGH DE SELINCOURT. 

A BOYS MARRIAGE. Crown Svo. 6/- 

fyewoi^ S/rt«rf«rrf—" Exceedingly realistic . . . but does not give the impres- 
sion that anything is expatiated upon for the sake of effect. A daring but sincere 
and simple book. . . . likely to attract a good deal of attention." 

Athennum—"'T\\fi best points in Mr. de Sulincourt's novel are his delicacy of 
treatment and sense of character. . . . He has the making of a fine novelist." 

'3 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 

BY HUGH DE sihmCOV^T-continued. 

THE STRONGEST PLUME. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Acadenty — "An uncomfortable story for the conventionally minded. It deals 
a deadly blow to the ordinary accepted notions of the respectable." 

Daily Telegraph — ''The story is a very commendable as well as a very inter* 
esting piece of work." 

Daily Mail^" A neat, artistic story." 
THE HIGH ADVENTURE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Evening Standard. — " A novel for all lovers of the poetry of life ' uttered or 
unexpressed."' 

Morning Post. — " Mr. deSelincourt certainly has a talent for describing rather 
nice young men." 

Observer. — "A clever and refreshing story.' 

THE WAY THINGS HAPPEN. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Moming Post. — "The book has moments ol grace and charm that few contem- 
porary writers give us." 

Pall Mall Gazette. — " ' The Way Things Happen ' confirms a long-settled con" 
viction that among the young generation of writers there are few who can compete 
with Mr. de Selincourt for pride of place." 

Times. — " Reading this book is a surprising and a rare experience." 

BY H. SIENKIEWICZ. 

THE FIELD OF GLORY. Cr. 8vo. 6/- Fifth Thousand. 

Spectator. — " A spirited, picturesque romance . . . full of adventures, related 
with all the author's picturesqueness of detail and vigour of outline." 

Evening Standard. — "As a vital, humourous and extraordinarily effective 
presentment of a childish, heroic, lovable race, it deserves to be read and remem- 
bered . . . worthy of Dumas." 

BY G. S. STREET. 

THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A BOY. F'cap. 8vo. 3/6 

Fifth Edition. 

Pall Mall Gazette. — " A creation in which there appears to be no flaw." 
Speaker. — "The conception is excellent and the style perfect. One simmers 
with laughter from first to last.'' 

THE TRIALS OF THE BANTOCKS. Crown 8vo. 3/6 

PVcstmiiistcr Gazette. — " Since Mr. Matthew Arnold left us we remember 
nothing so incisive about the great British Middle, and we know of nothing of 
Mr. Street's that we like so well." 

Saturday Review. — " Mr. Street has a very delicate gift of satire." 

Times. — "A piece of irony that is full of distinction and wit. " 

THE WISE AND THE WAYWARD. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Mr. \V. L. Courteney in Daily Telcgrap/i.—" Mr. Street has given us a novel- 
of rare distinction and charm. The fineness ol his execution yields as much 
artistic and literary delight as the delicacy of his perceptions and the acuteness 
of his analysis. " 

14 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BY HERMANN SUDERMANN. 

REGINA ; or THE SINS OF THE FATHERS. 

Crown 8vo. 6/- Third Edition. 

A Translation of " Der Katzensteg," by Beatrice Marshall. 

S(. James's Gazelle. — "A striking piece of work, full of excitement and strongly 
drawn character." 

Globe. — "The novel is a striking one, and deserves a careful and critical 
attention." 

BY CLARA YIEBIG. 

ABSOLUTION. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Times. — "There is considerable strength in 'Absolution' . . . As a realistic 
study the story has mnch merit." 

Daily Telegraph.— The tale is powerfully told . . . the tale will prove absorb- 
ing with its minute characterisation and real passion." 

OUR DAILY BREAD. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Alhenaunt. — "The story is not only of great human interest, but also extremely 
valuable as a study of the conditions in which a large section of the poorer classes 
and small tradespeople of German cities spendytheir lives. Clara Viebig manipu- 
lates her material with extraordinary vigour. . . . Her characters are alive." 

Daily Telegraph.— ^^ Quite excellent." 

BY MRS. WILFRID WARD. 

THE LIGHT BEHLND . Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Athenaum. — " Qualities of a very desirable kind, united to a quiet moderate 
manner, do not belong to the common novel. It is perhaps superfluous to say 
that Mrs. Wilfrid Ward's new story is not a common novel and that it abounds in 
this pleasing combination." 

Punch. — "This is a book to read, and to keep to read again." 

BY H. B. MARRIOTT WATSON. 

GALLOPING DICK. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Daily Telegraph. — "We have an always attractive theme worked up in an 
unpretentious but thoroughly effective style." 

AT THE FIRST CORNER . Crown 8vo. 3/6 

Saturday Review. — "Admirably conceived and brilliantly finished ; the book 
will be read." 

THE HEART OF MIRANDA . Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Spectaior. — " Mr. Marriott Watson's literary gift is unmistakable." 

BY EDITH WHARTON. 

THE GREATER INCLINATION. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Dailv Telrgraph. — "Teem.s with liteiary ability and dramatic force." 
(hitlook.— " Miss Wharton writes with a sympathy, insight and understanding 
that we have seldom seen equalled.'' 



JOHN LANE'S LIST OF FICTION 
BT M. P. WILLCOGKS. 

WIDDICOMBE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Lvening Standard. — " Wonderfully alive and pulsatinz with a curious fervour 

which brings round the reader the very atmosphere which the author describes* 

. . . A fine, rather unusual novel. . . . There are some striking studies of women." 

Trtith. — " A first novel of most unusual promise." 

Queen. — "An unusually clever book." 

THE WINGLESS VICTORY. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

^^^wfsT^^Such books are worth keeping on the shelves even by the classics, 
for they are painted in colours that do not fade." 

Daily Telegraph. — "A novel of such power as should win for its author a 
positionin the front rank of contemporary writers of fiction." 

A MAN OF GENIUS . Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Dailv Telegraph. — " ' Widdicorabe' was good, and 'The Wingless Victory" 
was perfiaps better, but in 'A Man of Genius the author has given us something 
that sliould assure her place in the front rank of our living novelists. In this 
latest novel there is so much of character, so much of incident, and to its writing 
has gone so much insight and observation that it is not easy to praise it without 
seeming exaggeration.' 

Punch. — ''^ There is no excuse for not reading ' A Man of Genius ' and making 
a short stay in the 'seventh Devon of delight." 
Globe. — " Exquisite." 

THE WAY UP. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

*»* Michael Strode, the ironmaster, who is the central figure of Miss Willcocks' 
new novel, devotes his life to the work of showing the Way Out of the economic 
jungle of poverty by means of co-operative production ; he is prepared to sacrifice 
everything : he is a fanatic, possessed by an idea. But Strode the thinker is also 
Strode the man, bound by closest ties to a woman of the oldest type in the world. 
The siren refuses to lencl either her money or herself to further his scheme. The 
novel is one, therefore, that touches three burning questions of the hour — capital 
and labour, the claims of the individual against those of the State, the right of a 
woman to her own individuality. In the clash of passion and duty, blow follows 
blow, revelation succeeds revelation, till the wrappings that shroud reality are 
stripped from it and both dreamers awake, but to wnat reality must be read in the 
pages of the book itself, which, besides being a picture of a group of modern men 
and women, is also a study of certain social tendencies of to-day and possiblj* 
to-morrow. 

BY P. E. MILLS YOUNG. 

A MISTAKEN MARRIAGE. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Pall Mall Gazelle. — " It is a very sincere and moving story. The heroine 
claims our sympathies from the first, and we follow her fortunes with absorbed 
interest." 
CHIP. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

Morning Post. — " Original, vivid and realistic." 

Athencetttn. — "A tale . . . of unusual romantic interest." 

ATONEMENT. Crown 8vo. 6/- 

%* The story, which is laid in South Africa, shows how Harborough, a man 
ot naturally honourable character, becomes entangled with Sylvia Wentworth, a 
girl who cfeliberately sets to work to fascinate hira while already engaged to 
Sydney Ainleigh. When Harborough offers to marry her, Sylvia refuses and 
steadily adheres to her determination to marry her fiance. Harborough meets 
and falls passionately in love with Naomi Bruce, the beautiful daughter of the 
farmer on who.se farm he is working. How he endeavours to conquer his love, 
and how circumstances combine to bring him and Naomi together, the tale reveals. 
Naomi is in ignorance of Harborough^s former entanglement at the time of her 
marriage. Later he confesses it to her, and she, disillusioned and horrified, leaves 
him. How the tale ends the reader must find out for himself. 

i6 



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